Social Psychology Exam 1
Terms in this set (68)
Jada gives William her dessert at lunch in the hopes that he will like her. Jada's behavior is an example
B. Direct Social Influence Attempt
Although the fields of personality psychology and social psychology are related, what distinguishes social psychology from the other?
It examines how social situations impact individual's lives, whereas the other examines only the individual
Last weekend, Paula smiled politely while Lance talked to her for several hours. Wow, thinks Lance to himself, she was so nice; Paula must really like me—she was so friendly! Lance's interpretation of Paula's behavior is an example of
George just finished a poem, and is very proud of his work. He knows he should ask his instructor for some constructive feedback to improve it, but chooses not to because he is afraid of losing his sense of accomplishment. In this case, which basic motive did George give in to
the need to feel good about oneself
Many fraternities, sororities, and sports teams have initiation rituals. For example, at one school, all the members of the soccer team must wear unusual clothing everywhere on campus for an entire day and then have embarrassing haircuts. These rituals try to capitalize on the role of ________ in increasing commitment via self-justification.
A goal of ethnography that makes it different from other methods of testing theories is that in ethnography, the researcher
tries to understand the group or culture without imposing his or her own ideas on it.
Which of the following is not a major drawback of observational methods?
a. They cannot be used to study rarely occurring behaviors very well.
b. They do not allow scientists to predict behavior.
c. Archival research is at the mercy of the quality of the original reports.
d. These methods cannot accurately describe behavior.
In a study of group dynamics, participants were placed in groups consisting of either three or ten people. During the study, group members worked together trying to solve a puzzle. After completing the task, participants reported how satisfied they were with the other members of their group. ________ is the independent variable in this study
A researcher is interested in the changing nature of sex roles in contemporary society. If she were to employ an archival analysis, what would she be most likely to do?
record how boys and girls are portrayed in children's books
Which of the following pairs of variables are most likely to be negatively correlated?
Parents seldom spend a lot of time explaining to their children how to ride a bicycle. Instead, they often get a bike with training wheels and let the children learn for themselves how to ride a bike. This is because our understanding about how to ride a bicycle is based on
automatic thinking which is difficult to describe to someone else
In a study on facilitated communication, headphones were used to ask the communication-impaired person one question and the facilitator a different question (unbeknownst to the two parties). Then the answers provided by the communication-impaired person with the help of the facilitator were examined. Findings indicated that the technique was
ineffective; the facilitators answered the question they were asked but believed they were answering the question asked of the others.
When Robin meets her friend's new roommate, she sees that she has easels and paints strewn about, and has decorated her side of the room with lots of hand-made ceramic pots and paintings. At first, Robin is most likely
to use her "artistic" person schema and assume that her friend's roommate is free-thinking and creative.
When the psychologist asks, "Tell me the first thing that comes to mind," he/she is asking for the most _______ schema.
Recall that Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson (1968) informed grade-school teachers that some of their students (called "bloomers") would show great academic improvement in the upcoming year. Also recall that students labeled "bloomers" actually showed greater increases on IQ tests compared to students who were not labeled "bloomers." These differences occurred because teachers
challenged "bloomers" more and gave them more and better feedback.
Imagine traveling to a country where you don't speak the native language. You just had a great meal. You don't want to be misunderstood, so how can you communicate to your host that the meal was great, and that you're happy?
Seeing pictures of physically attractive celebrities and models, many people in the U.S. assume that these people are also intelligent, kind, or wealthy. Such assumptions illustrate the implicit personality theory held widely as a culture that
What is beautiful is good
One day, Professor Burns came into class and put his briefcase onto the desk in the front of the room. The desk promptly fell apart and the briefcase tumbled to the floor. Because of perceptual salience, what will students be most likely to think?
Professor Burn ruined that desk.
The authors of your text present a study by Masuda and his colleagues (2008) that examined cultural differences in social perception. They compared how participants perceived a central character when the surrounding characters in a picture either matched or mismatched the central character's facial expression. What concept were they examining in this study?
Differences in thinking style translate into differences in interpreting facial expression.
We make self-serving attributions for all of the following reasons except that we
are concerned with obtaining accurate feedback about ourselves to use in making future decisions
Consider the following self-description: "I have blue eyes and brown hair. I have two sisters. I hate vegetables, but I love ice cream." Such a self-description was most likely provided by the typical
The fact that people do not spend much time thinking about themselves—and that when they do, they are often unable to find the reasons for feelings and behavior—are two reasons why ________ can be considered a source of faulty information about the self.
Women are most often awarded custody of their children because of the belief that they are the best custodians of children, even though we know that women commit infanticide and abuse. Our belief represents
A Causal theory
________ occur(s) when people assume that their "true" attitudes match the underlying reasons that seem plausible or that are easy to verbalize in the moment.
Reasons-generated attitude change
Rosemary was invited to a dinner party by a colleague from her new job. Although she was told to arrive around 7:00, Rosemary made sure that she did not arrive before 7:30 so she would not appear overly eager. In which of the following strategies is Rosemary engaging?
The topic that would most interest a social psychologist is
whether people's decision about whether to cheat on a test is influenced by how they imagine their friends would react if they found out
How does social psychology differ from personality psychology?
Social psychology focuses on the processes that people have in common with one another that make them susceptible to social influence, whereas personality psychology focuses on individual differences
A stranger approaches Emily on campus and says he is a professional photographer. He asks if she will spend 15 minutes posing for pictures next to the student union. According to a social psychologist, Emily's decision will depend on which of the follow?
How Emily construes the situation
Researchers who try to understand human behavior from the perspective of social cognition assume that
people try to view the world as accurately as possible
The fundamental attribution error is best defined as the tendency to
explain our own and other people's behavior entirely in terms of personality traits, thereby underestimating the power of social influence
Which of the following is least consistent with the self esteem approach to how people view themselves and the social world?
Janetta did poorly on the first test in her psychology class. She admits to herself that she didn't study very much and vows to study harder for the next test.
The basic dilemma of the social psychologist is that
there is a trade-off between internal and external validity in most experiments
Suppose a researcher found a strong negative correlation between college students' GPA and the amount of alcohol they drink. Which of the following is the best conclusion from this study?
If you know how much alcohol a student drinks, you can predict his or her GPA fairly well.
A team of researchers wants to test the hypothesis that drinking wine makes people like jazz more. They randomly assign college students who are 21 or over to one room in which they will drink wine and listen to jazz or to another room in which they will drink water and listen to jazz. It happens that the "wine room" has a big window with nice scenery outside, while the "water room" is windowless, dark, and dingy. The most serious flaw in this experiment is that it
is low in internal validity
Mary wants to find out whether eating sugary snacks before an exam leads to better performance on the exam. Which of the following strategies would answer her question most conclusively?
Wait for exam time in a big class, give a random half of the students M&Ms before the exam, and see whether the students who ate M&Ms perform better.
A researcher conducts a study with participants who are college students. The researcher then repeats the study using the same procedures but with members of the general population as participants. The results are similar for both samples. The research has established _____ through______
External validity; replication
In the Latane and Darley study, people sat in cubicles and hard over an intercom system someone having a seizure, to test psychological processes thought to be present in the Kitty Genovese murder. All of the following reasons except one explain why social psychologists do laboratory studies that differ so much from the real-life events that inspired them Which One?
The participants in lab studies are often more representative of the general population than are the people in the real-life examples.
Professor X wants to make sure his study of gifted youngsters will get published, but he's worried that his findings could have been caused by something other than the independent variable of who their first grade teacher was. He is concerned with the______ of his experiment
Suppose a psychologist decides to join a local commune to understand and observe its members' social relationships. This is
Mary and Juan want to establish interjudge reliability in their study on child bullying and the amount of time spent playing video games. To ensure interjudge reliability, they shoudl
independently observe and code the data to see if they come up with the same observations
All of the following except one are part of the guidelines for ethical research. Which is not?
There must be a cover story for every study, because all studies involve some type of deception
Over Thanksgiving Break, you parents ask you if you can think of 12 reasons why your college is better than its archrival. You find it hard to come up with so many reasons and so end up thinking, "Hmm, maybe the schools aren't all that different." Which of the following mental strategies did you probably use to reach this conclusion?
The availability heuristic
Sam plays a carnival game in which the would have won a stuffed donkey if the had guessed the correct cup under which a ball was hidden. Unfortunately, from the line of 20 cups, he picked the cup directly to the left of the winning cup. According to social psychological research, he is most likely to
engage in counterfactual thinking
Which of the following if FALSE about research on free will?
Studies have shown that people have free will over almost everything they do
Suppose you're driving home from watching a scary movie about a hitchhiker who was a murderer when you see someone talking loudly with a friend. Because you saw the movie, you assume that you are witnessing an argument that will probably end in a fight. This is an example of
Which of the following is LEAST true of the holistic thinking style discussed in this chapter?
The holistic style of thinking probably has a genetic basis
Rob is definitely not the most attractive guy in the dorms but he is extremely confident about who he is and how he looks. He is convinced that most women find him to be very attractive, and he in fact usually gets dates with women who are much more attractive than he is. What is the best explanation of Rob's success?
All of the following are good examples of the self-fulfilling prophecy except one. Which one?
Sarah is worried that her son is not gifted in music, but he does better at his piano lessons than she expected
According to this chapter, which is the best analogy to describe people's thinking abilities?
People are flawed scientists
Which of the following is MOST true about the use of schemas?
Although schemas can lea to errors they are a very useful way of organizing information about the world and filling gaps in our knowledge
Which of the following is the best summary of research on automatic thinking?
Automatic thinking is vital to human survival, but it is not perfect and can produce mistaken judgments that have important consequences.
Paul Ekman and Walter Friesen traveled to New Guinea to study the meaning of various facial expressions in the primitive South Fore tribe. What major conclusion did they reach?
The six major emotional expressions are universal
What is a major assumption of Kelley's covariation model of attribution?
People gather information to make causal attributions rationally and logically
Which of the following psychological phenomena shows the least cultural variation?
Anger and fear facial expressions
Suppose that Mischa has found that when she sits in the first row of discussion classes she gets a better participation grade, regardless of how much she actually participates. Her positioning in front of the teacher could have an effect on how large of a role the teacher thinks Mischa has in discussion due to
the perceptual salience
Mr. Rowe and Ms Dabney meet on a blind date. They get along well until they get into his black convertible to go to a movie. Ms Dabney is quiet and reserved for the rest of the evening. It turns out that her brother had recently been in a serious accident in that same type of care and seeing it brought up those unwanted emotions. Mr. Rowe assumes that Ms. Dabney has a cold and reserved personality, thereby demonstrating
The fundamental attribution error
Suppose a certain student, Jake, falls asleep during every chemistry class. Further suppose that Jake is the only who falls asleep in this class and he falls asleep in all his other classes. According to Kelley's covariation theory of attribution, how will people explain his behavior?
It is due to something unusual about Jake, because his behavior is low in consensus, low in distinctiveness, and high in consistency.
Imagine that you are in Hong Kong reading the morning news and you notice a headline about a double murder that took place overnight. A suspect is in custody. Which of the following headlines is most likely to accompany the story?
Dispute over Gambling Debt Ends in Murder
Ming is from china; Jason is from the United States. Both participate in an experiment in which they take a test, are given feedback, and are told that they did very well. They are then asked to make attributions for their performance. Based on cross-cultural research on the self-serving bias, you would expect that
Jason, but not Ming, will say that he succeeded due to his high ability
Which of the following statements best describes cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error?
members of collectivist cultures are more likely to go beyond dispositional explanations, considering information about the situation as well.
It is 10AM and Jamie is dragging himself to his next class to turn in a paper for which he pulled an all-nighter. Through a haze of exhaustion, on the way to class he sees a student slip and fall down. How would Jamie be most likely to interpret the cause of the student's behavior?
Given what we know about Jamie's current cognitive capacity, he will likely assume that the student fell because he or she was clumsy.
Which of the following statements is least true, according to research on self-knowledge?
The best way to "know thyself" is to look inward, introspecting about ourselves
Your friend Jane is interning at a law firm. When you ask her how it's going, she says, "Fine. I'm doing much better than the intern who started a month after me. " What kind of social comparison is Jane making?
Downward Social Comparison
Suppose you meet Jessica, a student in your psychology class who is very friendly, and you like her immediately. She tells you about her recent trip to France and how much she loved it. Later on at a study-abroad session, you find yourself drawn to a program in Paris. The would be be an example of
Elise wants to increase her ability at self-control, such as by spending more time studying. Which of the following is least likely to work?
When she is studying, she should try hard to suppress thoughts about the party she could have gone to
According to research differences in how people define themselves,
men have more collective interdependence than women
Which of the following is true about self-esteem and narcissism?
People who are optimistic ( but not narcissistic) persevere more in the face of failure and set higher goals than do other people
According to self-perception theory, which of the following audience members would enjoy the taping of the Daily Show the most?
Stephen, who noticed that he was laughing more than other people