During the early 16th century conflict was focused in _______ Europe and was primarily between who?
Central Lutherans and Zwinglians
During the mid-late 16th century conflict shifted to ______ Europe and the major struggle centered around who and why?
Western Calvinists; achieve recognition.
The Peace of Augsburg recognized only _______ and _______ as legal religions.
Catholics and Lutherons
______ was a safe haven for Protestants and also Calvin's headquarters.
The __________ was the Catholic attempt to remain in power.
This art style expresses displays of raw energy.
__________ was a Catholic artist of this style.
Peter Paul Rubens
__________ was a Protestant artist of this style.
Rembrandt Van Rijin
_______ was the belief that religion was not worth fighting for ("To kill a man is not to defend doctrine, but to kill a man.")
French Protestants were called _______
_______ were "practical politicians".
Name the 3 families that fought for control of Francis II and indicate which religion they supported
a. Bourbons - Protestant b. Montmoreney - Chatillons - Protestant c. Guises - Catholics
____ of the population of France were Huguenots. The French aristocracy made up ____ of them.
1/15 , 2/5
__________ took the throne as regent for her son after Francis II death. She was a _______ (religion).
Catherine de Medicis Catholic
Catherine de Medicis issued the __________ giving the Protestants freedom to worship outside of towns.
The duke of Guise _______ a Protestant congregation at _______ marking the beginning of the French wars of religion.
On __________ 3,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris and _______ more were killed over the next 3 days.
August 24, 1572 20,000
Calvin condemned __________, but thought __________ was acceptable.
willful disobedience justification
________ became king following Henry II. He chose to make a ___________
Henry III middle course
At the __________ Henry III tried to rout of the Catholic League but failed.
Day of Barricades
__________was the Protestant leader who became king after the death of Henry II.
Henry of Navarre
He (Henry of Navarre) changed his name to ________.
Henry IV was a politique and said "_______________" when he chose to change his religion from Protestant to Calvinist.
Paris is worth a mass
The ___________ granted religious rights to Huguenots. These rights included:
Edicts of Nantes
a. freedom of public worship b. right of assembly c. admission to public offices and universities d. permission to maintain fortified towns
_______ was the most important ruler during the 16th century until the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He was known as the __________.
Philip II prudent king
List the four pillars of Spanish power:
a. New World Riches b. increased population c. efficient bureaucsacy and military d. supremacy in Mediterranean
Inflation was caused by _______ and _______ resulting in what 3 things?
wealth and population a. less food b. fewer jobs c. wages stagnated
_______ was especially affected by inflation.
Philip II organized the _______ into ______ and _______ national bureaucracy.
nobility loyal and official
Philip II managed his kingdom by __________.
pen and paper
The _______ (a combination palace, church, tomb, and monastery) was and example of Philip II's pastronage to the arts.
Escorial Escorid (?)
_______ had traditionally been Catholic Europe's champion against _______.
The __________ solidified Spain's control in the Mediterrranean Sea.
Battle of Lepanto
By suppressing a resistance in _______ Spain gained access to this country's over seas empire including what three places?
Poortugal a. Africa b. Brazil c. India
Philip II tried to impose his will in the __________, but was always defeated.
This country (Netherlands) was the ______________. It was also divided into _______________. These districs were _______________.
richest area in Europe
17 self.-gov. districts
tolerant of religions
__________ was the protestant leader for independence in the Netherlands.
William of Orange
Because Philip II tried to enforce the council of Trent, ________ rioted.
The ___________ was sent to suppress this riot. His attempt was known as _____________ or __________ and thousands of suspected heretics were publically executed.
Duke of Alba Council of Troubles or Council of Blood
The ten percent sales tax called the "__________" effecting mainly merchants and artisans causing thousands of people to flee the country.
"____________" were anti-Spanish exiles and criminals, among them were many Englismen.
To repulse the Spanish the Dutch did this:
opened dikes to flood city
During the ________, Spanish mercenaries ran amok and killed 7,000 people.
The ________________ united the ten southern provinces (largely ________) and the seven northern provinces (largely _______) against Spain.
Pacification of Ghent
At the ____________ the Catholic southern provinces made peace with Spain.
Union of Arras
Philip II declared William of Orange an outlaw. In response William of Orange gave a speech called __________________ declaring Philip II a tyrant that the Netherlands no longer needed to obey.
Apology of Orange
France and England helped the Netherlands and opened new fronts in the war _________________ Spain and insuring eventual victory to the Netherlands.
__________________ was chosen by Edward VI to take the throne following his death.
Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey was over thrown within nine days by _______. She was known as __________.
Mary I was ______ and wanted the rest of England to be this religion also. She executed 287 _____________leaders for heresy. Due to persecution thousands fled England to _________ and _______________. These people were know as______________.
Germany and Switzerland
Following Mary I ______________ came to power. She was known as the "________________".
the virgin queen
Eliabeth I's advisor was ________________
Sir William Cecil
The _________________ was a revision of the "Book of Common Prayer". This made _________________ the official religion within the Church of England.
_____________ plotted against Elizabeth I. There were encoraged by _____________. he extremists hoped to replace Elizabeth I with ____________________________.
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
____________ wanted to "__________" the Church of England by removing all of the ___________________________.
________________ were extreme puritans that thought each congregation should be independent.
_________________ aroused surrounding countries against Spain.
_________________ was a Sea Beggar who circumnavigated the globe to _________the power of _____________.
Sir Francis Drake
The _______________________ sent Englis soldiers and cavalry to the Netherlands.
Treaty of Nonsuch
The death of ______________________ caused Spain to go to war against England.
Mary, Queen of Scots
_______________ was a Scottish reformer. He led the _______________ denomination of Protestants.
In _________ the Spanish Armada was defeated. his was called the "____________". the renewed the ___________
The Thirty-Years' War took place within the __________________________
Holy Roman Empire
The four preconditions of the Thirty-Years War included:
a. fragmented Germany b. religious division c. Calvinism and Palatine d. Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic League
Germany was divided into ________________ each with its own political identity resulting in no centralized government.
360 self.-gov. entities
________________ was the Catholic military leader.
Count Joham Von Tilly
There were four periods of the war. These were:
a. Bohemian-Catholic b. Danish-Catholic c. Swedish-Tie d. Swedish-French-Tie
During the first period _______________ the Catholic leader ______________________of Bohemian _____________
takes away religious freedoms
The response to Ferdinand taking away the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants is known as "________________"
Defenstration of Prague
Ferdinand became the _________________ known as ___________.
Holy Roman Emporer
Protestants elected Palatine _______________. He changed his name to ________________________
to be king
At the _____________________ Catholics won the first period of the war.
Battle of the White Mountain
________________ won the second period of the war (Battle of the White Mountain)
__________________wanted a unified Lutheran nation. He won the battle of ___________ by using _______-_______-_________ tactics and using _______ artillery.
Gustavus Adolphus II Brieterfield, fire and charge lighter and more mobile.
The third period of the war resulted in ______.
During the fourth period of the war _______ joined the war resulting in ________ the war for 13 years. This period resulted in what?
France extending 1/3 German population declined
The _____________ ended the Thirty Years' War. This had two major effects which where:
Treaty of Wesphalia 1. made France a world power 2. recognizes calvinism as a legal religion 3. it didn't do anything to unify Germany