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77 terms

Chapter 12

During the early 16th century conflict was focused in _______ Europe and was primarily between who?
Lutherans and Zwinglians
During the mid-late 16th century conflict shifted to ______ Europe and the major struggle centered around who and why?
Calvinists; achieve recognition.
The Peace of Augsburg recognized only _______ and _______ as legal religions.
Catholics and Lutherons
______ was a safe haven for Protestants and also Calvin's headquarters.
The __________ was the Catholic attempt to remain in power.
Counter Reformation
This art style expresses displays of raw energy.
__________ was a Catholic artist of this style.
Peter Paul Rubens
__________ was a Protestant artist of this style.
Rembrandt Van Rijin
_______ was the belief that religion was not worth fighting for ("To kill a man is not to defend doctrine, but to kill a man.")
French Protestants were called _______
_______ were "practical politicians".
Name the 3 families that fought for control of Francis II and indicate which religion they supported
a. Bourbons - Protestant
b. Montmoreney - Chatillons - Protestant
c. Guises - Catholics
____ of the population of France were Huguenots. The French aristocracy made up ____ of them.
1/15 ,
__________ took the throne as regent for her son after Francis II death. She was a _______ (religion).
Catherine de Medicis
Catherine de Medicis issued the __________ giving the Protestants freedom to worship outside of towns.
January Ediot
The duke of Guise _______ a Protestant congregation at _______ marking the beginning of the French wars of religion.
On __________ 3,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris and _______ more were killed over the next 3 days.
August 24, 1572
Calvin condemned __________, but thought __________ was acceptable.
willful disobedience
________ became king following Henry II. He chose to make a ___________
Henry III
middle course
At the __________ Henry III tried to rout of the Catholic League but failed.
Day of Barricades
__________was the Protestant leader who became king after the death of Henry II.
Henry of Navarre
He (Henry of Navarre) changed his name to ________.
Henry IV
Henry IV was a politique and said "_______________" when he chose to change his religion from Protestant to Calvinist.
Paris is worth a mass
The ___________ granted religious rights to Huguenots. These rights included:
Edicts of Nantes

a. freedom of public worship
b. right of assembly
c. admission to public offices and universities
d. permission to maintain fortified towns
_______ was the most important ruler during the 16th century until the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He was known as the __________.
Philip II
prudent king
List the four pillars of Spanish power:
a. New World Riches
b. increased population
c. efficient bureaucsacy and military
d. supremacy in Mediterranean
Inflation was caused by _______ and _______ resulting in what 3 things?
wealth and population
a. less food
b. fewer jobs
c. wages stagnated
_______ was especially affected by inflation.
Philip II organized the _______ into ______ and _______ national bureaucracy.
loyal and official
Philip II managed his kingdom by __________.
pen and paper
The _______ (a combination palace, church, tomb, and monastery) was and example of Philip II's pastronage to the arts.
Escorid (?)
_______ had traditionally been Catholic Europe's champion against _______.
The __________ solidified Spain's control in the Mediterrranean Sea.
Battle of Lepanto
By suppressing a resistance in _______ Spain gained access to this country's over seas empire including what three places?
a. Africa
b. Brazil
c. India
Philip II tried to impose his will in the __________, but was always defeated.
This country (Netherlands) was the ______________. It was also divided into _______________. These districs were _______________.
richest area in Europe

17 self.-gov. districts

tolerant of religions
__________ was the protestant leader for independence in the Netherlands.
William of Orange
Because Philip II tried to enforce the council of Trent, ________ rioted.
The ___________ was sent to suppress this riot. His attempt was known as _____________ or __________ and thousands of suspected heretics were publically executed.
Duke of Alba
Council of Troubles or Council of Blood
The ten percent sales tax called the "__________" effecting mainly merchants and artisans causing thousands of people to flee the country.
tenth penny
"____________" were anti-Spanish exiles and criminals, among them were many Englismen.
Sea Beggars
To repulse the Spanish the Dutch did this:
opened dikes to flood city
During the ________, Spanish mercenaries ran amok and killed 7,000 people.
The ________________ united the ten southern provinces (largely ________) and the seven northern provinces (largely _______) against Spain.
Pacification of Ghent

At the ____________ the Catholic southern provinces made peace with Spain.
Union of Arras
Philip II declared William of Orange an outlaw. In response William of Orange gave a speech called __________________ declaring Philip II a tyrant that the Netherlands no longer needed to obey.
Apology of Orange
France and England helped the Netherlands and opened new fronts in the war _________________ Spain and insuring eventual victory to the Netherlands.
over extending
__________________ was chosen by Edward VI to take the throne following his death.
Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey was over thrown within nine days by _______. She was known as __________.
Mary I

Bloody Mary
Mary I was ______ and wanted the rest of England to be this religion also. She executed 287 _____________leaders for heresy. Due to persecution thousands fled England to _________ and _______________. These people were know as______________.


Germany and Switzerland

Marian exiles
Following Mary I ______________ came to power. She was known as the "________________".
Elizabeth I

the virgin queen
Eliabeth I's advisor was ________________
Sir William Cecil
The _________________ was a revision of the "Book of Common Prayer". This made _________________ the official religion within the Church of England.
Thirty-Nine Articles

Modern Protestantism
_____________ plotted against Elizabeth I. There were encoraged by _____________. he extremists hoped to replace Elizabeth I with ____________________________.


Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
____________ wanted to "__________" the Church of England by removing all of the ___________________________.


Catholic ceremonies
________________ were extreme puritans that thought each congregation should be independent.
_________________ aroused surrounding countries against Spain.
Sea Beggars
_________________ was a Sea Beggar who circumnavigated the globe to _________the power of _____________.
Sir Francis Drake


The _______________________ sent Englis soldiers and cavalry to the Netherlands.
Treaty of Nonsuch
The death of ______________________ caused Spain to go to war against England.
Mary, Queen of Scots
_______________ was a Scottish reformer. He led the _______________ denomination of Protestants.
John Knox

In _________ the Spanish Armada was defeated. his was called the "____________". the renewed the ___________

English Wird

Protestant Vigar
The Thirty-Years' War took place within the __________________________
Holy Roman Empire
The four preconditions of the Thirty-Years War included:
a. fragmented Germany
b. religious division
c. Calvinism and Palatine
d. Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic League
Germany was divided into ________________ each with its own political identity resulting in no centralized government.
360 self.-gov. entities
________________ was the Catholic military leader.
Count Joham Von Tilly
There were four periods of the war. These were:
a. Bohemian-Catholic
b. Danish-Catholic
c. Swedish-Tie
d. Swedish-French-Tie
During the first period _______________ the Catholic leader ______________________of Bohemian _____________

takes away religious freedoms

The response to Ferdinand taking away the religious freedoms of the Bohemian Protestants is known as "________________"
Defenstration of Prague
Ferdinand became the _________________ known as ___________.
Holy Roman Emporer

Ferdinand II
Protestants elected Palatine _______________. He changed his name to ________________________
to be king

Frederick V
At the _____________________ Catholics won the first period of the war.
Battle of the White Mountain
________________ won the second period of the war (Battle of the White Mountain)
__________________wanted a unified Lutheran nation. He won the battle of ___________ by using _______-_______-_________ tactics and using _______ artillery.
Gustavus Adolphus II
Brieterfield, fire and charge
lighter and more mobile.
The third period of the war resulted in ______.
a tie
During the fourth period of the war _______ joined the war resulting in ________ the war for 13 years. This period resulted in what?
1/3 German population declined
The _____________ ended the Thirty Years' War. This had two major effects which where:
Treaty of Wesphalia
1. made France a world power
2. recognizes calvinism as a legal religion
3. it didn't do anything to unify Germany