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59 terms

OB Hesi

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amniotic fluid
Pale, straw-colored fluid in which the fetus floats. It serves as a cushion against injury from sudden blows or movements and helps maintain a constant body temperature for the fetus. The fetus modifies the amniotic fluid through the processes of swallowing, urinating, and movement through the respiratory tract.
ballottement
Rebounding of the fetus against the examiner's finger on palpation. When the examiner taps the cervix, the fetus floats upward in the amniotic fluid. The examiner feels a rebound when the fetus falls back.
Chadwick's sign
Violet coloration of the mucous membranes of the cervix, vagina, and vulva that occurs at about 4 weeks of pregnancy caused by increased vascularity. This is considered a probable sign of pregnancy.
delivery
Actual event of birth; the expulsion or extraction of the neonate.
embryo
Stage of fetal development that lasts from day 15 until approximately 8 weeks after conception or until the embryo measures 3 cm from crown to rump.
fertilization
Uniting of the sperm and ovum, which occurs within 12 hours of ovulation and within 2 to 3 days of insemination, the average duration of viability for the ovum and sperm.
Goodell's sign
Softening of the cervix that occurs at the beginning of the second month of gestation. This is considered a probable sign of pregnancy.
gravida
A pregnant woman; called gravida I (primigravida) during the first pregnancy, gravida II during the second pregnancy, and so on.
Hegar's sign
Compressibility and softening of the lower uterine segment that occurs at about week 6 of gestation. This is considered a probable sign of pregnancy.
implantation
Embedding of the fertilized ovum in the uterine mucosa 6 to 10 days after conception.
infant
A human born alive; also, a human from 28 days of age until the first birthday.
labor
Coordinated sequence of rhythmic involuntary uterine contractions resulting in effacement and dilation of the cervix, followed by expulsion of the products of conception.
lecithin-to-sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio
Ratio of two components of amniotic fluid, used for predicting fetal lung maturity; normal L/S ratio in amniotic fluid is 2:1 or greater when the fetal lungs are mature.
lochia
Discharge from the uterus that consists of blood from the vessels of the placental site and debris from the decidua; lasts for 2 to 6 weeks after delivery.
Nägele's rule
Determines the estimated date of birth based on the premise that the woman has a 28-day menstrual cycle. Add 7 days to the first day of the last menstrual period; subtract 3 months and add 1 year. Alternatively, add 7 days to the last menstrual period and count forward 9 months.
newborn
A human from the time of birth to the twenty-eighth day of life; also called neonate.
parity
Number of pregnancies that have reached viability regardless of whether the fetus was born alive or stillborn.
placenta
Organ that provides for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the fetus and the mother and produces hormones to maintain pregnancy. The placenta develops by the third month of gestation and is also called afterbirth.
quickening
Maternal perception of fetal movement for the first time, occurring usually in the sixteenth to twentieth week of pregnancy.
surfactant
Phospholipid that is necessary to keep the fetal lung alveoli from collapsing; amount is usually sufficient after 32 weeks' gestation.
uterus
Organ located behind the symphysis pubis, between the bladder and the rectum. It has four parts—fundus (upper part), corpus (body), isthmus (lower segment), and cervix.
vagina
Tubular structure located behind the bladder and in front of the rectum; it extends from the cervix to the vaginal opening in the perineum. It functions as the outflow tract for menstrual fluid and for vaginal and cervical secretions, the birth canal, and the organ for coitus.
viability
Capability of the fetus to survive outside the uterus; about 22 to 24 weeks of gestation or fetal weight more than 500 g.
lochia rubra
first lochia, with debris and gunk
lochia serosa
pink or light brown days 3 or 4 to day 10
lochia alba
yello or white days 10 until placenta is healed (2 to 6 weeks after delivery)
cephalhematoma
slight abnormal deviation from delivery trauma. it is capillary bleeding between the periosteum and skull. often caused by FORCEPS
postpartum blues peak
around the 5th postpartum day
The anterior fontanel closes at
12 to 18 months
The posterior fontanel closes by ...
by the end of the second month
when does ovulation occur?
14 days before menses
ductus venosus
connect umbilical vein with inferior vena cava, passes through/largely bypasses the liver.
dystocia
prolonged labor or very painful labor
betamethasone
a glucocorticoid given (after after mag sulfate for preterm labor) to increase surfactant producation to stimulate fetal lung maturation. given at 28 to 32 wks if mag is successful in inhibiting labor for 48 hrs.
dizygotic
= fraternal twins
monozygotic
= identical twins
what aids in absorption of iron?
vitamin C!
food rich in Iron:
LEGUMES, meat, liver, whole grain breads, deep green leafy veggies, dried fruits.
foods that reduce iron absorption
milk, eggs, coffee, bran, tea
1 meter
3.3 feet
1 meter in cm
100 cm
BMI
Kg / (Meters squared)
lightening
In first-time pregnancies the uterus sinks downward and forward about 2 weeks before term, when the fetus's presenting part (usually the fetal head) descends into the true pelvis. also called dropping
Fetal heart rate acceleration during contractions are
normal
third trimester painless bleeding
characteristic of placenta previa and diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasound
baby low temp, shaky hands and lower lip
hypoglycemia, do glucose stick
APGAR
10 is perfect; 0 is worst
goal of labor augmentation is to achieve
three good quality contractions in ten minute period
eclampsia
seizure. when preeclampsia progresses to eclampsia, clear and maintain open airway, give oxygen, administer mag, assess BP and fetal HR
Butorphanol tartrate (Stadol)
is an opioid analgesic that provides systemic pain relief during labor. DO NOT use with opioid addicts bc of strong withdrawal symptoms.
mag therapeutic
4-8 mg/dL
produces flushing and sweating due to decreased peripheral blood pressure
mag sulfate
mag sulfate _________ acetylcholine
decreases it; blocking neuromuscular transmission (
tocolytic
drug used to suppress labor (toci = birth)
Administer IV magnesium sulfate to
decrease hyperreflexia and minimize risk of seizure activity.
severe pain after delivery of placenta
uterine inverstion!!!
Periodic changes are those that
occur with UCs.
Episodic changes are those that
are not associated with UCs.
Mag Sulfate
It decreases neuromuscular excitability. It produces peripheral vasodilation.