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Psychology Chapter 4 part 2

From Chapter 4 of Psychology AP Edition Philip G. Zimbardo (Author), Robert L. Johnson (Author), Ann L. Weber (Author), Craig W. Gruber (Author)
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Loudness
A sensory characteristic of sound produced by the amplitude (intensity) of the sound wave
Timbre
The quality of a sound wave that derives from the wave's complexity (combination of pure tones)
Conduction deafness
An inability to hear resulting from damage to structures of the middle or inner ear.
Nerve deafness (sensorineural deafness)
An inability to hear that is linked to a deficit in the body's ability to transmit impulses from the cochlea to the brain, usually involving the auditory nerve or higher auditory processing centers
Vestibular sense
The sense of body orientation with respect to gravity. The vestibular sense is closely associated with the inner ear and, in fact, is carried to the brain on a branch of the auditory nerve
Kinesthetic sense
The sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other (also called kinesthesis)
Olfaction
The sense of smell
Pheromones
Chemical signals released by organisms to communicate with other members of their species; are often used by animals as sexual attractants; unclear whether or not humans employ pheromones
Gustation
The sens of taste-from the same word root as "gusto"- also called the gustatory sense
Skin senses
Sensory systems for processing touch, warmth, cold, texture, and pain
Gate-control theory
An explanation for pain control that proposes we have a neural "gate" that can, under some circumstances, block incoming pain signals
Placebo effect
A response to a placebo (a fake drug) caused by subject's belief that they are taking real drugs
Percept
The meaningful product of perception-often an image that has been associated with concepts, memories of events, emotions, and motives
Feature detectors
Cells in the cortex that specialize in extracting certain features of a stimulus
Binding problem
Refers to the process used by the brain to combine (or "bind") the results of many sensory operations into a single percept. This occurs. for example. when sensations of color. shape boundary, and texture are combined to produce the percept of a person's face. No one knows exactly how the brain does this. Thus the binding problem is one of the major unsolved mysteries in psychology
Bottom-up processing
Perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristics of the stimulus, rather than our concepts and expectations. "______" refers to the stimulus ,which occurs at the first step of perceptual processing
Top-down processing
Perceptual analysis that emphasizes the perceiver's expectations, concept memories, and other cognitive factors, rather than being driven by the characteristics of the stimulus. "top" refers to a mental set in the brain-which stands at the :top" of the perceptual processing system
Perceptual constancy
The ability to recognize the same object as remaining "constant" under different conditions, such as changes in illumination, distance, or location
Illusion
You have experienced an illusion when you have a demonstrably incorrect perception of a stimulus pattern, especially one that also fools others who are observing the same stimulus. (if no one else sees it the way you do, you could be having a delusion or a hallucination. We'll take those terms up in a later chapter on mental disorder)
Ambiguous figures
images that are capable of more than one interpretation. There is no "right" way to see an ambiguous figure
Gestalt psychology
From a German word that means "whole" or "form" or "configuration"; ______ _______ believed that much of perception is shaped by innate factors built into the brain
Figure
The part of a pattern that commands attention; stand out against the ground
Ground
The part of a pattern that does not command attention; the background
Closure
The Gestalt principle that identifies the tendency to fill in gaps in figures and to see incomplete figures as complete
Laws of perceptual grouping
The Gestalt principles of similarity, proximity, continuity, and common fate. These "laws" suggest how our brains prefer to group stimulus elements together to form a percept
Law of similarity
The Gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together on our perceptions
Law of proximity
The Gestalt principle that we tend to group objects together when they are near each other.
Law of continuity
Gestalt principle that we prefer perceptions of connected and continuous figures to disconnected and disjointed ones
Law of common fate
The Gestalt principle that we tend to group similar objects together that share a common motion or destination
Law of pragnanz
the most general Gestalt principle, which states that the simplest organization, requiring the least cognitive effort, will emerge as the figure.
Monocular cues
Information about depth that relies on the input of just one eye (includes relative size, light and shadow, interposition, relative motion, and atmospheric disorders)
Binocular cues
Infomation taken in by both eyes that aids in depth perception, including binocular convergence and retinal disparity
Learning-based inference
The view that perception is primarily shaped by learning (or experience), rather than by innate factors
Perceptual set
readiness to detect a particular stimulus in a given context-as when a person who is afraid interprets an unfamiliar sound in the night as a threat