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57 terms

A&P questions 67-125

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Exercise increases venous return because:


the increase in respiratory rate and depth inhibits the action of the thoracic pump.

muscle contractions decrease venous return by means of the skeletal muscle pump.

blood vessels of the skeletal muscles, lungs, and coronary circulation dilate, increasing flow.

decreased venous return increases cardiac output, which is important in perfusion of the muscles just when they need it most.

the heart beats faster and harder, increasing cardiac output and blood pressure.
blood vessels of the skeletal muscles, lungs, and coronary circulation dilate, increasing flow.
the heart beats faster and harder, increasing cardiac output and blood pressure.
Decompensated shock results in:


ischemia and acidosis of the brainstem, which depress the vasomotor and cardiac centers.

several life-threatening positive feedback loops.

myocardial ischemia and infarction.

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

All of the choices are correct.
ischemia and acidosis of the brainstem, which depress the vasomotor and cardiac centers.
several life-threatening positive feedback loops.
myocardial ischemia and infarction.
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
*** All of the choices are correct.
The main chemical stimulus for cerebral autoregulation is

pH.

sodium levels.

CO2.

O2.

None of the choices are correct.
pH.
During exercise, the adrenal medulla and sympathetic nerves cause

precapillary sphincters to constrict in response to muscle metabolites such as lactic acid, CO2, and adenosine.

arterioles to dilate in response to epinephrine and norepinephrine.

muscular contraction to compresses the blood vessels.

parasympathetic nerves to be activated.

None of the choices are correct.
arterioles to dilate in response to epinephrine and norepinephrine
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except

heart → arteries → capillary bed → veins → heart

heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → veins → heart

heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → arteries → heart

heart → arteries → arterial anastomosis → capillary bed → veins → heart

heart → arteries → arterial anastomosis → capillary bed → venous anastomosis → veins → heart
heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → arteries → heart
In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by

an aneurysm or weak point in an artery.

an aneurysm or weak point in a vein.

failure of the venous valves.

failure of the lymphatic valves.

a ruptured aneurysm in a vein.
failure of the venous valves.
What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?

45 mm Hg

80 mm Hg

87.5 mm Hg

90 mm Hg

175 mm Hg
80 mm Hg
The medullary ischemic reflex results in

increased circulation to the brain.

reduced circulation to the brain.

ischemia of the medulla oblongata.

increased circulation to the adrenal medulla.

hormone secretion by the adrenal medulla when perfusion drops.
increased circulation to the brain.
____________ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _______________ also increases heart rate.

Norepinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP); norepinephrine

Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine

Epinephrine and aldosterone; epinephrine

Epinephrine and antidiuretic hormone (ADH); antidiuretic hormone (A
Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is

oncotic pressure.

tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure.

blood colloid osmotic pressure.

interstitial hydrostatic pressure.

blood hydrostatic pressure.
blood hydrostatic pressure.
________________ by the capillaries at their venous end.

Waste products are taken up

Oxygen and glucose are taken up

Oxygen and glucose are given off

Wastes are given off

Organic nutrients are taken up
Oxygen and glucose are taken up
The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is

oncotic pressure.

tissue fluid colloid osmotic pressure.

blood colloid osmotic pressure.

interstitial hydrostatic pressure.

blood hydrostatic pressure.
blood colloid osmotic pressure.
____________ would not increase capillary filtration.

Blockage of lymphatic capillaries

Dehydration

Increased capillary permeability

Dietary protein deficiency

Obstructed venous return
Dehydration
A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause _____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause _____________.

neurogenic shock; syncope

neurogenic shock; cardiogenic shock

compensated shock; decompensated shock

syncope; neurogenic shock

syncope; cerebral edema
syncope; cerebral edema
_______________ does not contribute to venous return.

The difference of pressure between venules and the venae cavae

The expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity during ventilation

The suction created by the atria slightly expanding during ventricular systole

Widespread vasodilation

Contraction of skeletal muscles of the limbs
Widespread vasodilation
A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes ___________ and a(n) _____________ in arterial blood pressure.

vasodilation; decrease

vasodilation; increase

vasoconstriction; decrease

vasoconstriction; increase

vasoconstriction; oscillation
vasodilation; decrease
Pulmonary arteries have ________________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.

similar

a little lower

considerably lower

considerably higher

a little higher
considerably lower
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?

0

1

2

4

7
0
The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the

right pulmonary artery.

left pulmonary artery.

pulmonary veins.

bronchial arteries.

lobar arteries.
bronchial arteries.
The _______________ supplies 80% of the cerebrum.

superficial temporal artery

occipital artery

internal carotid artery

anterior cerebral artery

middle cerebral artery
internal carotid artery
From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

superior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.

superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery, celiac trunk, gonadal arteries, renal arteries, and common iliac arteries.
celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except

the hepatic veins.

the internal and external iliac veins.

the inferior phrenic veins.

the vertebral veins.

the lumbar veins.
the vertebral veins.
All these can lead to edema except

obstruction of lymphatic vessels.

liver disease.

famine.

hyperproteinemia.

hypertension.
hyperproteinemia.
Vasomotion is associated with the presence of

collagen and elastic tissue in the tunica media.

elastic tissue in the tunica externa.

endothelium in the tunica interna.

smooth muscle in the tunica media.

fenestrations in the tunica externa.
smooth muscle in the tunica media.
The velocity of blood flow decreases when

viscosity increases.

blood pressure increases.

vessel radius increases.

afterload increases.

vasomotion decreases.
viscosity increases.
_______________ has the most important effect on blood velocity.

Blood viscosity

Vessel radius

Blood osmolarity

Hematocrit

Vessel length
Blood viscosity
___________________ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration.

Anaphylactic

Cardiogenic

Hypovolemic

Venous pooling (vascular)

Neurogenic
Hypovolemic
______________ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability.

Compensated

Anaphylactic

Neurogenic

Cardiogenic

Septic
Septic
Blood flow to the _______________ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg.

hypothalamus

adrenal gland

stomach

skeletal muscles

kidneys
hypothalamus
After entering the right atrium, the furthest a red blood cell can travel is the

right ventricle.

pulmonary trunk.

superior vena cava.

ascending aorta.

left atrium.
who knows
Congestive heart failure (CHF) of the right ventricle

can cause pulmonary edema.

can cause systemic edema.

increases the ejection fraction of the right ventricle.

reduces the ejection fraction of the left ventricle.

increases cardiac output in both ventricles.
can cause systemic edema.
Assume that the left ventricle of a child's heart has an EDV=90mL, and ESV=60mL, and a cardiac output of 2,400 mL/min. His SV and HR are

SV=30 mL/beat, HR=80 bpm.

SV=40 mL/beat, HR=60 bpm.

SV=80 mL/beat, HR=30 bpm.

SV=150 mL/beat, HR=16 bpm.

SV=16 mL/beat, HR=150 bpm.
SV=30 mL/beat, HR=80 bpm.
____________ carry oxygen-poor blood.

Pulmonary veins and vena cavae

Aorta and pulmonary veins

Aorta and vena cavae

Venae cavae and pulmonary arteries

Pulmonary veins and pulmonary arteries
Pulmonary veins and vena cavae
This is the correct path of an electrical excitation from the pacemaker to a cardiocyte in the left ventricle (LV).

sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → atrioventricular (AV) node → Purkinje fibers → cardiocyte in LV

atrioventricular (AV) node → Purkinje fibers → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → sinoatrial (SA) node → cardiocyte in LV

atrioventricular (AV) node → sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → Purkinje fibers → cardiocyte in LV

sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) node → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → Purkinje fibers → cardiocyte in LV

sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) node → Purkinje fibers → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → cardiocyte in LV
sinoatrial (SA) node → atrioventricular (AV) node → atrioventricular (AV) bundle → Purkinje fibers → cardiocyte in LV
The plateau in the action potential of cardiac muscle results from the action of

Na+ inflow.

K+ inflow.

K+ outflow.

fast Ca2+ channels.

slow Ca2+ channels.
slow Ca2+ channels.
If the sinoatrial (SA) is damaged, the heart will likely beat at

less than 10 bpm.

10 to 20 bpm.

20 to 40 bpm.

40 to 50 bpm.

70 to 80 bpm.
40 to 50 bpm.
This is the correct sequence of events of the cardiac cycle.

ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → isovolumetric relaxation → ventricular ejection

ventricular filling → isovolumetric relaxation → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection

ventricular filling → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric contraction → isovolumetric relaxation

ventricular filling → isovolumetric relaxation → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric contraction

ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular filling → isovolumetric contraction → ventricular ejection → isovolumetric relaxation
______________ belong to the pulmonary circuit.

Aorta and venae cavae

Aorta and pulmonary veins

Pulmonary arteries and venae cavae

Venae cavae and pulmonary veins

Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
Pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins
_____________ is the most superficial layer enclosing the heart.

Parietal pericardium

Visceral pericardium

Endocardium

Epicardium

Myocardium
Parietal pericardium
Pericardial fluid is found between

the visceral pericardium and the myocardium.

the visceral pericardium and the epicardium.

the parietal and visceral membranes.

myocardium and endocardium.

epicardium and myocardium.
the parietal and visceral membranes.
The ________________ performs the work of the heart.

fibrous skeleton

pericardial cavity

endocardium

myocardium

epicardium
myocardium
The tricuspid valve regulates the opening between

the right atrium and the left atrium.

the right atrium and right ventricle.

the right atrium and the left ventricle.

the left atrium and the left ventricle.

the left ventricle and the right ventricle.
the right atrium and right ventricle.
The ________________ is the pacemaker that initiates each heart beat.

sympathetic division of the nervous system

autonomic nervous system

sinoatrial (SA) node

atrioventricular (AV) node

cardiac conduction system
sinoatrial (SA) node
Which of these is not part of the cardiac conduction system?

the sinoatrial (SA) node

the tendinous cords (TC)

the atrioventricular (AV) node

the atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His)

the Purkinje fibers
the tendinous cords (TC)
These are features of cardiac muscle fibers except

they depend almost exclusively on aerobic respiration.

they are rich in glycogen.

they have huge mitochondria.

they are very rich in myoglobin.

they have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers.
they have about the same endurance as skeletal muscle fibers.
The pacemaker potential is a result of

Na+ inflow.

Na+ outflow.

K+ inflow.

K+ outflow.

Ca2+ inflow.
K+ outflow.
Cells of the sinoatrial node ____________ during the pacemaker potential.

depolarize fast

depolarize slow

repolarize slow

repolarize fast

depolarize slow and repolarize fast
depolarize slow
Any abnormal cardiac rhythm is called a(n)

ectopic focus.

sinus rhythm.

nodal rhythm.

heart block.

arrhythmia.
sinus rhythm.
The _______________ provides most of the Ca2+ needed for myocardial contraction.

extracellular fluid

mitochondria

sarcoplasmic reticulum

Golgi apparatus

cytoskeleton
cytoskeleton
Atrial depolarization causes

the P wave.

the QRS complex.

the T wave.

the first heart sound.

the quiescent period.
the T wave.
When the left ventricle contracts, the _____ valve closes and the _____ valve is pushed open.

bicuspid; pulmonary

tricuspid; pulmonary

tricuspid; aortic

mitral; aortic

aortic; pulmonary
mitral; aortic
_____________ would not decrease colloid osmotic pressure (COP) in blood.

Severe liver failure

A diet predominantly based on red meat

Starvation

An extremely low-protein diet

Hypoproteinemia
A diet predominantly based on red meat
Tissues can become edematous (swollen) when

colloid osmotic pressure (COP) is high.

there is hyperproteinemia.

the concentration of sodium and proteins in blood is high.

hematocrit is high.

there is a dietary protein deficiency.
there is a dietary protein deficiency.
A woman's first pregnancy is normal but her second pregnancy results in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), or erythroblastosis fetalis. The second child needed a transfusion to completely replace the agglutinating blood. The mother is most likely type _____ and both children are most likely _____.

A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive

A, Rh-positive; B, Rh-negative

O, Rh-negative; AB, Rh-negative

AB, Rh-positive; O, Rh-negative

AB, Rh-positive; O, Rh-positive
A, Rh-negative; B, Rh-positive
The viscosity of blood is due more to _____________ than to any other factor.

fibrin

albumin

sodium

erythrocytes

nitrogenous wastes
erythrocytes
Some lymphocytes can survive for

days.

weeks.

months.

years.

decades.
decades.
Arteries are sometimes called the _______________ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have strong-resilient tissue strucure.

resistance
capacitance
hydrodynamic
compliance
fenestrated
resistance