Terms in this set (65)
a written law passed by a legislative body.
is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas
Law that was brought from England. Ensures that all amendments and subsequent laws (enacted after the adoption of a constitution) comply with the state's or nation's fundamental law.
Agencies in the criminal justice system
police, law enforcement, courts, corrections, community corrections
Crime Control Model
1)Goal: Repress criminal conduct
3) Nature of Process: Administrative and filtering
4)Decision Point: Police and Prosecutor
5)Basis for decision-making: Discretion
6)Analogy: Assembly line
Due Process Model
1)Goal: Preserve individual liberty
3) Nature of Process: Adversarial
4)Decision Point: Courtroom
5)Basis for decision-making: Law
6)Analogy: Obstacle Course
Justified via resources and justice
Name: National Crime Victimization Survey
Asks about victimization
unwilling to implicate self
Name: Uniform Crime Report (law enforcement based)
-are official data on crime in the United States, published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
Part I Crime
Part One Data- 4 violent Crimes/ 4 property crimes
VCS= Murder, Rape, Robbery, Aggravated Assault
PCS= Burglary, Larceny, Theft, Arson, Motor Vehicle theft
involves the threat of or actual physical harm to the victim.
involves unlawfully damaging or taking the property of another
crime that you can see
term used to refer to actions that have been made illegal but which do not directly violate or threaten the rights of any other individual.
ex: smoking a bowl, trespassing
crime that is committed through opportunity created in the course of your job
White Collar Crime
Violation of the criminal law committed by someone in the course of his or her occupation
engaging in espionage or treason against USA
group of people/ or (just a person) having some manner of a formalized structure and whose primary objective is to obtain money through illegal activities.
Ex: gangs, italian mafia,
Dark Figure of Crime
crime not known to the police
-Prevalence rates, proportion of offenders who committed a particular offense at least once in a specific time period.
-Incident Rates, the average number of offenses per respondent
Allow researchers to determine biases in the criminal Justice System
National Incident-Based Reporting System
-is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies in the United States for collecting and reporting data on crimes. Local, state and federal agencies generate NIBRS data from their records management systems.
a violation or infringement of a law, agreement, or set of rules.
A document that embodies the fundamental laws and principles by which the United States is governed. It was drafted by the Constitutional Convention and later supplemented by the Bill of Rights and other amendments.
Elements of a Crime
Actus Reus, Mes Rea, concurrence, causation,harm
Principles of Criminal Law
prohibited behaviors and prescribes a penalty for committing the forbidden behavior
8th constitutional right
Nor Cruel or Unusual Punishments
prohibits excessive fines and bail
Someone who can prove that he or she had no disposition or desire to commit the offense until trapped into doing so
Age of 7 when kids are said to be able to reason
2 types of intoxication may be used as a defense
1) Voluntary- my be used against robbery, larceny, burglary
2)Involuntary-Defendant mistakenly or through coercion became intoxicated by his peers.
an unlawful threat or coercion used by someone to induce another person to act in a way in which he or she might not normally act.
EX: Someone holds a knife to your loved ones neck an told you to commit a crime. good defense
Different States have different standards
is the practice of crediting and referring to authoritative documents and sources
document that lays down governmental structure, political processes, and limitations on the use of power by a state in the U.S.
Right to a "speedy and public trial"
militia give up their constitutional rights when joining the military
Have an option to not incriminate yourself
no double jeopardy
if government takes your property they have to pay you
search and seizure
can terry frisk you if they have probable cause
Criminological Explanations of Crime
May be biological, psychological, sociological, and economic
Cesare Beccaria Father of
Social contrast matters
-only one purpose to punishment
-deterrence occurs via punishments
Hedonistic rationality or calculus
it assumes that people freely choose to commit crime because they are goal oriented and seek to maximize their pain. Acting mostly of self interest
shift in thinking
may exhibit free will
Premeditation (measure of free will)
Importance of circumstances
move away from free will
criminals often different from non-criminals
social science as a lens
Crime can have multiple factors
Biological Explanations of Crime
diet deficiencies, sugar diet, hypoglycemia, food dyes, lead, radiation, brain dysfunctions, hereditary factors, hormone abnormality
Psychological Explanations of Crime
unresolved problems leads to psychopathic behavior, no guilt, no conscience, low intelligence
Social Explanations of Crime
humans are social therefore we live in groups, groups create structures, structure influence our behavior, environment causes criminal behavior
most people share similar values and goals but the ability to satisfy those needs and aspirations depends on socioeconomic class.
Social groups create deviance by making the rules whose infraction constitutes deviance, and by applying those rules to particular people people and labeling them as outsiders.
Life Course Theory
look at individual
examination over time
minor to major crime
Origins of US policing
Functions of the Police
earlier known as frith-borh (literally "peace-pledge"), was a system of joint suretyship common in England throughout the Early Middle Ages.The essential characteristic was the compulsory sharing of responsibility among persons connected through kinship, or some other kind of tie such as an oath of fealty to a lord or knight.
Sir Robert Peel
home secretary in England
he got passed the London Metroplitan police Department (first introduced police force)
he stated that the police would serve on the interest of all the people
Punish people for committing unlawful acts and disturbing the public
Crime Solving (law enforcement)
Investigation, arrest, pretrial. Must have reasonable doubt
Functions of the Police
order maintenance, law
Political ERA for Policing
Rise of the Political Machine (job for votes)
-control votes ->had control over police
Professional ERA for Policing
police out of politics -> well trained/disciplined
Equal enforcement of law
use technology (when there is new advances use it)
Switch to crime fighting (not crime prevention).
Role of merit
Community ERA for Policing
Random Patrol- surprise people
Police and public relation was broken
Limits on professional model
AKA Father Of Modern U.S. Policing
Chief in Berkeley
Started Cal's CJ program
instated that educated police officers would make better police officers
Technology adopter (cop car, computer, radio)
Military style disciplines
Orlando Winfield Wilson
police officer under VOLLMERS command
protege of vollmer (police commissioner in Chicago)
divided departments by their functions
-believed in accountability and ethics
Role of Merit
Allows people to rise through ranks based on their accomplishments
Broken Windows Theory
cumulative effect if no one cares
Ideas: we often let minor disorder often ignored
physical disorder, social disorder,
Address disorder (bigger problems take care of themselves
Wilsons Varities of Police behavior
Watchmen Style (order maintenance)
Legalistic Style (enforcement)
Service Style (when the situation calls the police will serve one of these)