Unit 11: Testing and Individual Differences

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intelligence test
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
intelligence
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
general intelligence (g)
A general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
factor analysis
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score.
savant syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spacial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, naturalist
What were Gardner's Eight Intelligences?
8
How many intelligences were included in Howard Gardner's theory of intelligence?
3
How many intelligences were included in Robert Sternberg's theory of intelligence?
analytic, creative, and practical
What were Sternberg's Three Intelligences?
general intelligence
What was Spearman's theory of intelligence?
primary mental abilities
What was Thurstone's theory of intelligence?
analytic (intelligence)
What kind of intelligence is academic and problem solving abilities?
creative (intelligence)
What kind of intelligence is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas?
practical (intelligence)
What kind of intelligence is required for everyday tasks such as writing effective memos, motivating people, reading people, and promoting one's own career (people skills)?
emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions?
mental age
A measure of intelligence performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance.
Stanford-Binet
The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
IQ (intelligence quotient)
Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus __ = ma/ca x 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
achievement tests
Tests designed to assess what a person has learned.
aptitude tests
Tests designed to predict a person's future performance; _____ is the capacity to learn.
WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale)
The _____ is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
standardization
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
normal curve
The symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
reliability
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, or on retesting.
validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
content validity
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest.
predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior. AKA "criterion-related validity".
intellectual disability
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
Down syndrome
A condition of intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
stereotype threat
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.