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28 terms

Society, Culture, and Cultural Change

social science 101 chapter four
STUDY
PLAY
Habits
ways of behaving that have been learned so well that they can be carried on without conscious attention
Socialization
The process that shapes the personality of an individual so she/he can adjust to and become members of society (it's how we become accumulated to)
Social problem
A wide recognition of adverse affects- and the belief that condition can and SHOULD change
Social evolution-
A gradual, accumulative process of change and interaction by which cultures gradually develop.
Social evolution is change between different cultures; whereas, culture evolution is that same gradual change, but just within one single culture
What is the difference between social and cultural change?
Social values
The motivating power that makes institutions function effectively
the doctrine of Cultural relativism
a doctrine in which states that all cultures are for the most part equally valid
Cultural lag
The slowness in the rate of change on one part of a culture in relation to another, resulting in a mal-adjustment within society.
Cultural integration
The degree to which a culture is internally consistent and homogeneous
Cultural diffusion
The spread of cultural traits from one social group to another
Ethnocentrism
Tendency to judge other cultures by a person's own culture and it's standards
Discovery/invention
The two factors that started Technological development.
Discovery
done by learning something about the physical/social environment that was not known before
Invention
Is a new way of doing something or a new object/device developed to serve a specific purpose.
Conventions
Simple, Everyday customs of a group that represent the usual ways of behaving
Cultural alternatives
Those cultural characteristics not necessarily shared by other cultures.
Cultural evolution
Culture evolving through a long process of change.
Cultural objects (artifacts)
Products of human skill and effort that are essential to the functioning of a society
Cultural universal
An Aspect of culture that is found in all cultures.
Culture
the total pattern of human behavior and its products, embodied in thought, speech, action, and artifacts.
Ideology
An organized system of ideas for remodeling society to bring it "nearer to the hearts desire"
Internet
An interconnected set of computers through which people can communicate and transfer information
Language
a body of words and the system for their use common to a people of the same community or nation
The theory is that a change in any one part of culture may create strains and disturbances in the closey related parts
What is the Cultural Lag Theory?
-Stability of Social Norms (sticking to their beliefs)
-Habit (second natured)
-Value Attachment (high morals)
What are the 3 Factors that stabilize culture?
-Technological Development
-Cultural Diffusion
-Ideas and Ideologies
-Collection Action (change by planned group action)
-Geography and Climate
What are the 5 Factors that are known for causing cultural change?
-Social Norms (Conventions, Mores, and Laws)
-Social Institutions
-Material Products
-Language
-Social Values
What are the elements of Culture?
Respect for different ways of living
What is the basis of Cultural Relativism?