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social science 101 chapter four


ways of behaving that have been learned so well that they can be carried on without conscious attention


The process that shapes the personality of an individual so she/he can adjust to and become members of society (it's how we become accumulated to)

Social problem

A wide recognition of adverse affects- and the belief that condition can and SHOULD change

Social evolution-

A gradual, accumulative process of change and interaction by which cultures gradually develop.

Social evolution is change between different cultures; whereas, culture evolution is that same gradual change, but just within one single culture

What is the difference between social and cultural change?

Social values

The motivating power that makes institutions function effectively

the doctrine of Cultural relativism

a doctrine in which states that all cultures are for the most part equally valid

Cultural lag

The slowness in the rate of change on one part of a culture in relation to another, resulting in a mal-adjustment within society.

Cultural integration

The degree to which a culture is internally consistent and homogeneous

Cultural diffusion

The spread of cultural traits from one social group to another


Tendency to judge other cultures by a person's own culture and it's standards


The two factors that started Technological development.


done by learning something about the physical/social environment that was not known before


Is a new way of doing something or a new object/device developed to serve a specific purpose.


Simple, Everyday customs of a group that represent the usual ways of behaving

Cultural alternatives

Those cultural characteristics not necessarily shared by other cultures.

Cultural evolution

Culture evolving through a long process of change.

Cultural objects (artifacts)

Products of human skill and effort that are essential to the functioning of a society

Cultural universal

An Aspect of culture that is found in all cultures.


the total pattern of human behavior and its products, embodied in thought, speech, action, and artifacts.


An organized system of ideas for remodeling society to bring it "nearer to the hearts desire"


An interconnected set of computers through which people can communicate and transfer information


a body of words and the system for their use common to a people of the same community or nation

The theory is that a change in any one part of culture may create strains and disturbances in the closey related parts

What is the Cultural Lag Theory?

-Stability of Social Norms (sticking to their beliefs)
-Habit (second natured)
-Value Attachment (high morals)

What are the 3 Factors that stabilize culture?

-Technological Development
-Cultural Diffusion
-Ideas and Ideologies
-Collection Action (change by planned group action)
-Geography and Climate

What are the 5 Factors that are known for causing cultural change?

-Social Norms (Conventions, Mores, and Laws)
-Social Institutions
-Material Products
-Social Values

What are the elements of Culture?

Respect for different ways of living

What is the basis of Cultural Relativism?

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