85 terms

Chapter 20- The Progressives

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Progressivism
Idea to pursue reform in social and economic affairs.
Muckrakers
Journalists who directed public attention to social, economic, and political issues.
McClure's Magazine
Magazine that Lincoln Steffens worked for.
Lincoln Steffens
Reporter for McClure's magazine and author of The Shame of the Cities.
Machine Government
Term coined by Lincoln Steffens describing the government as a soulless operation.
Ida Tarbell
Muckraker who worked extensively against John Rockefeller.
Social Gospel
The idea that the nation's cities needed redemption.
American Medical Association
Created to legitimize real doctors and provide scientific standards that doctors must abide by to earn licenses.
Social Work
Improving the quality of life for individuals and groups.
Jane Addams-Hull House
Jane Addams started this famous settlement house very early on.
Boss Rule
A certain political machine influencing politics by manipulating the votes of groups of immigrants.
Settlement Houses
"Houses" designed to help immigrants adapt to middle-class American customs.
How The Other Half Lives
Photo series created by Jacob Riis.
The "New" Woman
Women who became educated and felt that they were more independent (with the lessening of housework)
Women's Clubs
Groups of women that made decisions on social issues.
Colored Women's League
Club for colored women exclusively that worked with lynching and segregation.
Suffrage and Natural Rights
Women believed that these qualities should occur for them as well as men. Natural rights implied the right to vote.
Women's Sphere
The idea that women had a priority of working as wives and mothers. Anti-suffrage.
League of Women Voters
Developed from the NAWSA.
National American Women's Suffrage Association
Group of women supporting suffrage.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
american poet and writer who wrot ethe Breakfast Table series and coined the term "anesthesia".
Lochner v. New York (1905)
Court case that determined that limiting working hours was unconstitutional.
Seneca Falls Convention
The first women's rights convention.
Lucretia Mott
Female American Quaker, women's rights activist, and abolitionist.
Susan B. Anthony
Female American abolitionist, social reformer, and lobbyist for the 19th Amendment.
Equal Rights Amendment
Gave women the right to vote (19th Amendment)
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of the NAWSA and American women's suffrage leader. Campaigned for the 19th Amendment.
Florence Kelley
Social and political reformer who worked against sweatshops and for the minimum wage, children's rights, and the eight-hour workday.
Alice Paul
Main leader and strategist of the 19th Amendment.
National Women's Party
Founded by Alice Paul, this organization was singlemindedly devoted to women's suffrage.
19th Amendment
Equal Rights Amendment.
Muller v. Oregon
Supreme Court case that affirmed discrimination based on sex.
Secret Ballot
A ballot that was printed by the government, instead of a ballot ticket printed by the party.
Nonpartisan
Not belonging to any party.
Commission Plan
Overthrowing the partisan mayor and city council in favor of a nonpartisan comission.
City Manager Plan
An outside business manager or engineer would take charge of the city government.
"At Large"
Running for office, exposed to the public.
Municipal Government
A government located in the city.
Charles Evans Hughes
New York governor that created a commission to regulate public utilities.
Hiram Johnson
California governor that regulated the Southern Pacific Railroad.
Woodrow Wilson
New Jersey governor that battled to rid the state of the nickname "mother of trusts".
Robert LaFollette
Governor of Wisconsin. Created the "laboratory of progressivism".
Special Interest Groups
Advocates for votes that were not partisan. E.g. newspapers, educational groups, etc.
Initiative
A vote on a municipal bill can be sent to the electorate and bypass the council chambers.
Referendum
A chamber vote can be passed to the electorate for approval/
Lobbyists
People who influence government decisions.
Laboratory of Progressivism
Under Robert LaFollette, Wisconsin progressives created this idea, which helped to create all sorts of reform.
17th Amendment
Direct election was introduced so Senators were elected by the people.
"...put down your bucket where you are."
Booker T. Washington quote to get people to work for instant self-imporvement instead of long-term change.
Union Labor Party
Labor group that exerted political pressure.
Tammany Hall
A "political machine" that was transformed into a machine for justice, working to help fix child labor and other issues.
International Ladies' Garment Workers Union
Largest female labor union in the U.S. in the Progressive Era.
Niagara Movement 1905
Movement started by W.E.B. Dubois.
NAACP 1909
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Founded after the Springfield Race Riots with the help of white progressives.
Samuel Gompers
Leader of the AFL.
"accomodation"
Booker T. Washington's opinion towards oppression.
"talented tenth"
Idea popularized by W.E.B Dubois that one in ten African-American men would become involved in representing their race.
William Borah
Progressive Republican Idaho governor.
Springfield Race Riots
Founding event for the NAACP.
The Souls of Black Folk
Book by W.E.B. Dubois.
American Federation of Labor
Labor union that chose to remain away from politics.
Robert F. Wagner
Chairman of the investigation of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire.
Alfred E. Smith
New York Governor against prohibition and anti-Progressive.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
A devastating fire that propelled reform towards labor conditions.
Atlanta Compromise 1895
A compromise led by Booker T. Washington that said that blacks would submit to white political power as long as they were represented fairly in court and got education.
W.E.B. Dubois
Man who believed that blacks should fight for their rights instead of working to become more talented.
Temperance
Abstaining from alcohol.
Women's Christian Temperance Union 1873
Largest women's union in 1911. Fought against alcohol.
Dillingham Immigration Report 1911
Report that said that newer immigrant groups were harder to assimilate than other groups.
Frances Williard
President of the WCTU.
Eugenics
The idea that "racial stock" can be graded and polluted by inferior races, and that the unfit should be sterilized.
Nativism
A policy of protecting the interests of native people over immigrants.
Anti-Saloon League
Temperance union, ASL.
18th Amendment
Amendment prohibiting alcohol.
Wage-Slave System
A system where a person works with total dependency on a wage.
General Strike
A strike led by people from all jobs in an area.
Louis D. Brandeis
Lawyer and eventual Supreme Court justice who argued that "bigness" was a large issue and that it was not a fair system to have companies become too large. Author of the book Other People's Money.
"Good" Trusts and "Bad" Trusts
Trusts that use their power effectively and trusts that abuse it.
Eugene V. Debs
Leader of the Socialist Party.
William "Big Hill" Haywood
Leader of the IWW (Wobblies).
Nationalist Movement
Movement to have government regulation of "bad" trusts and support of "good" trusts.
Other People's Money 1913
Book published by Brandeis that advocated against the "curse of bigness".
Socialist Party of America 1901
Party led by Eugene V. Debs.
Industrial Workers of the World
Violent Socialist union that struck through militant labor action and general strikes.
Theodore Roosevelt
President in favor of regulation of big business.
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