Terms in this set (46)
The deterioration of those characteristics of soil needed for plant growth or other ecosystem services
A soil conservation method in which two or more crops are planted on one field
A soil conservation method in which the type of crop grown in a field is alternated from one season or year to the next
A crop planted to reduce erosion after a field has been harvested and before the next planting
One or more rows of trees or other perennial plants planted along the edge of a field to prevent wind erosion; also called windbreak
The turning-over of soil before planting
A soil conservation method in which sloped land is transformed into a series of steps to prevent soil erosion
A soil conservation method in which furrows a re plowed across a hillside perpendicular to its slope
Allowing animals to eat so much of the plant cover in a field or pasture that the plants cannot regrow
A loss of more than 10% in the productivity of soil due to erosion, deforestation, overgrazing, drought, or other factors
The buildup of salts in the surface layers of soil
What is a human activity that causes erosion while farming
Fields can be harvested which causes no plants to cover and protect the soil
What is a human activity that causes erosion while ranching
The animals eat a lot of grass, causing overgrazing
What is s human activity that causes erosion while forestry takes place
Clear- cutting and logging methods leads to severe erosion
What are two farming practices that can help reduce erosion
Crop rotation and intercropping
Eight factors that contribute to desertification?
Erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salt buildup, climate change, and depletion of water sources
What environmental event in the 1930's led the U.S. Government to formalize its soil conservation policies
The Dust Bowl
Explain the role of farming and ranching in the formation of the Dust Bowl
Farmers free abundant wheat, and ranchers grazed thousands of cattle, which led to erosion and helped create the Dust bowl
Why is drop irrigation efficient
Because it gets water directly to a plants roots
What is the best way to prevent salinization in "dry" areas...
Plant crops that do not need a lot of water
What are the practices of agriculture that can erode soil.
Farming, ranching, and forestry practices can erode soil, but other practices can protect it
Desertification reduces productivity of what type of lands...?
What do U.S. And international agricultural organizations promote...?
They promote soil conservation
What can improve soil productivity?
Irrigation and pesticide use can improve productivity in the short term
True or false? Can irrigation and pesticide use pollute soil in the long term?
What is soil made up of?
Minerals, organic matter, air, and water
Soil composition is indulgences by...?
Climate, organisms, landforms, parent material, and time
Soil "texture" is based on...?
Soil groups are classified according to properties such as:
Color, structure, pH, and texture
Breaking of rocks and minerals into smaller pieces
Natural breakup of rock- by wind, rain, extreme temperature changes
Rock is changed into different minerals- by water and other substances
The process of moving. Material, such as topsoil, from one place to another
The mixture of disintegrated rock, organic matter, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms that support plant growth
The base geological material in a particular location
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution
A chemical used to kill organisms that attack or compete with plants that humans value
The amount of a crop produced in a given area
A type of farming that relies on technology and chemicals to increase yields and reduce costs
The introduction of new technologies, crop varieties, and farming practices to the developing world
The mass of solid rock that makes up earths crust
Biological pest control
The use of organisms to battle pests and weeds
Soil that is approximately equal parts clay, silt, and sand
Using a source other than precipitation to water crops
Soil particles that are 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter
Integrated pest management
The use of both biological and chemical methods to control pests safely and economically