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Terms, Definitions, and Study Questions. Matter, Substances, Mixtures, Physical & Chemical Changes, Scientific Notation
Terms in this set (59)
matter
anything you can see, touch, or feel that has a mass and occupies space; you can tangibly interact with it
states of matter
solid, liquid, gas
solid
rigid because of the structure of the molecules; fixed shape and volume
liquid
not rigid, no fixed shape, fixed volume
gas
a state of matter with no definite shape or volume
substances
matter with distinct and uniform properties
elements
a molecule made of one kind of atom; it is the smallest unit of any substance so it cannot be broken down; the periodic table is made up of elements
compounds
made up of atoms of two or more elements; a group of molecules that can be chemically separated into elements
molecule
an electrically neutral group of atoms joined together by chemical bonds
atom
the most basic unit of matter
mixture
a mix of substances; not chemically combined
What is NOT considered matter?
things like heat from a fire, light, or sound because you cannot hold, taste, or smell them
substances can be:
an element or a compound
why is a solid rigid?
because of the structure of the molecules
what is the difference between atoms and molecules?
the amount: an atom is just 1, whereas a molecule is a group of atoms
how does a solid turn into a liquid?
melting caused by high temperature, which makes the molecules move around quicker
Law of Constant Composition
states that the ratio of elements in a given compound is constant
types of mixtures
homogeneous and heterogeneous
homogeneous mixtures
same consistency throughout the mixture
heterogeneous mixtures
visible difference in consistency throughout
how can you separate mixtures?
physical changes
physical changes include
distillation, drying, extraction, chromatography, filtration, centrifugation, chelation
physical change occurs
when a substance undergoes change without chemical reactions; this can be phase change or dissolution
chemical change
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances
When using scientific notation, what if the exponent is negative?
move the decimal to the left
When using scientific notation, what if the exponent is positive?
move the decimal to the right
How do you add numbers in scientific notation?
make sure the exponents are the same, then add pre-exponential numbers only
How do you subtract numbers in scientific notation?
make sure the exponents are the same, then subtract exponential numbers only
How do you multiply numbers in scientific notation?
multiply pre-exponential numbers, then add the exponents
How do you divide numbers in scientific notation?
divide pre-exponential numbers, then subtract the exponents
What does SI stand for?
System International
What is the SI unit for length?
meter (m)
What is the SI unit for mass?
kilogram (kg)
What is the SI unit for time?
seconds (s)
What is the SI unit for electric current?
ampere (A)
What is the SI unit for thermodynamic temperature?
Kelvin (K)
What is the SI unit for amount of substance?
mole (mol)
What is the SI unit for luminous intensity?
candela (cd)
Temperature
speed of molecules; the average kinetic energy
Formula for Kelvin
C + 273.15
Formula for Celcius
5/9 (°F - 32)
Formula for Fahrenheit
9/5 (°C) + 32
Formula for Rankine
°F + 459.67
Velocity Formula
length/time
Volume Formula
length x width x height
Frequency Formula
1/time
Density Formula
mass/volume
Precision
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
Accuracy
how close a measurement is to the true value
What is a significant figure?
all nonzero digits and some zeros
Pacific/Atlantic Rule for Sig Figs
If a decimal is PRESENT count SFs from the left
If a decimal is ABSENT count SFs from the right
How do you add and subtract significant figures?
truncate the final answer to match the amount of decimal places as the input with the least amount
How do you multiply and divide significant figures?
truncate result to have the same amount of sig figs as the input with the fewest
Density
compares the mass of an object to its volume
Density of solids and liquids
g/cm^3 or g/mL
Density of gas
g/L
Volume Displacement
the volume of a solid calculated from the volume of water displaced when it is submerged
ABA System
A x B/A = B
Dimensional analysis
using the units that are part of a measurement to help solve the problem
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