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40 terms

Intro to Cancer NCLEX

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G0 Phase
A nondividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle.
G1 phase
stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
G2 phase
The second growth phase of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
s phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
Proto-oncogene
A normal gene that can become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression
AML
Acute Myelocytic Leukemia

immature granulocytes predominate. produce alot of myeloblasts
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma

5 times more common than Hodgkin's; abnormal lymphocytes are produced that divide and grow uncontrollably, crowd into the lymph nodes causing swelling.
multiple myeloma
myeloma that develops in several places at the same time
myeloma
a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
Angiogenesis
the process through which the tumor supports its growth by creating its own blood supply
lack of "contact inhibition"
Normal cells stop dividing when they become crowded because mitosis is inhibited when cells contact nearby cells.
Cancer cells continue to divide and produce a tumor.
contact inhibition
_________ is a phenomenon in which cells stop dividing when they are in close contact with neighboring cells, thus preventing excessive tissue growth.
metastasis
- process of growth, local infiltration, diapedesis, invasion, breaking off into another part of the body
it slowly takes over the body
PET Scan
Nuclear medicine study used to diagnose cancer

scanning technique that measures metabolic processes to appraise how well an organ is functioning
PET fusion
PET scans significantly enhance the capability of physicians to diagnose cancer at earlier stages, it better defines the stage of the tumor, and helps identify the best treatment option. PET allows a physician to examine large areas of body in a single scanning session, producing images of human body functions unobtainable by other imaging techniques. These images capture biochemical processes, such as tissues glucose metabolism, that cannot be revealed by anatomical imaging with conventional X-ray, CT or MRI. By uncovering abnormalities that might otherwise go undetected, PET guides physicians to the most appropriate treatment.
Radioimmunoconjugates
Monoclonal antibodies are labeled with a radioisotope and injected intravenously into the patient; the antibodies that aggregate at the tumor site are visualized with scanners.
dependence
The need to take a substance to avoid physical discomfort
Carcinomas
cancers that originate in the external or internal coverings of the body

epithelial tissues
Sarcomas
Cancers that arise in the connective tissue cells, including bones, ligaments, and muscles.

connective tissues
Adenocarcinomas
cancers of glandular epithelial cells

Ductal or Glandular Epithelium
Lymphoma
tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)

general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system
Leukemia
cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells


malignant disease characterized by excessive increase in abnormal white blood cells formed in the bone marrow
Multiple myeloma
malignant tumor of bone marrow cells, The plasma cells, mainly in bone morrow, become malignant and crowd out normal cell production, destroy normal bone tissue & thereby causes pain.

Normal production of antibodies is changed, making the client susceptible to infection.

More often in men older than 65.


PLASMA
Neuroblastoma
malignant tumor of adrenal or nervous origin

nerve cells
Meningeal sarcoma
A malignant tumor of the meninges
benign tumor
Noncancerous growth
malignant tumor
an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor
Tumor markers
- pull blood from antecubital
- there are some antigens that are on the outside of cancer cells that are unique to cancer cells

- those antigens create substances that are floating in the blood
- for some cancers, you can do a blood test to see if you have cancer

biologic markers produced by cancer cells found on tumor plasma membranes or in blood, spinal fluid, or urine

look for tumor-made substances
Genetic Profiling
the procedure of analyzing the DNA in samples of a person's body tissue or body fluid for the purpose of identification.

- DNA (blood test or a mouth swab - more expensive)
MRI cancer
mammography
Nuclear medicine imaging
uses injected or ingested radioactive isotope (radionucleotide). A gamma camera detects and produces an image of the distribution of the gamma rays in the body. good for examining the shape, location and function of organs like the brain, lungs, bones and heart


- inject a dye into the body, tumors take them up because it attaches to the unique antigens outside of tumors and it makes it glow

- or it goes to certain organ systems, make the organ systems glow to see abnormalities

- done on outpatient basis
PET Scan
marks biological activity, used to detect or measure response to treatment

- by the time you can see a tumor, its very big and there are a lot of cells
- and chances are it has metastasized by this time


- its very great to detect the cancer at an early phase
- or to measure the response to treatment - so if you're trying to attack the biological activity of cancer, you can do a PET scan before the Tx and a PET scan after the Tx and see how effective it was

- because if it was trying to attack that biological activity, the PET scan should see a lowering of that biological activity
PET fusion
outlines tumor and indicates biological activity

- another type of outlining but outlines based on biological activity

- much more sensitive to the tumor than the physical outline of the tumor
Radioimmunoconjugates
monoclonial antibiodies attach to tumor for visualization
Endoscopy
direct visualization


- most invasive - usually with surgery or biopsy or going down bronchoscopy, colonoscopy, etc. - to do that, you have to get to the organ systems via tubes or surgery
the only way to diagnose cancer is by
biopsy
- take a piece of tissue and see what it looks like under a microscope
- Fluoroscopy
- a dye that's taken up
Monoclonal Antibodies
there are specific antigens to cancerous tumors

- the monoclonal antibody is a tumor marker - and it attaches to the antigen
- and it will have something attached to it
glow - radiation (burn it out)

- or it's like chocolate to the monocytes and lymphocytes so it looks delicious to the immune system

- bc cancer hides under the immune system's radar
RADIATION
- destroys the tumor
- damages the cell to throw it into apoptosis
- what parts of cell division does it work in? G2 and Mitosis

bc it creates the damage in mitosis


radiation kills cells that are DIVIDING:
- not specific to cancer cells
- affects all rapidly dividing cells such as - skin
- hair follicles
- oral
g2
preparation for mitosis, Period when cell prepares to divide,after DNA is duplicated.