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185 terms

Community health

STUDY
PLAY
actions that society takes collectively to ensure that the conditions in which people can be healthy can occur defines
public health
eating wisely, wearing a safety belt, and visiting a physician are examples of
personal health activities
the beginning of government's major involvement in social issues, including health, was marked by the
social security act of 1935
community health concerns of the 21st century include
lifestyle diseases, environmental problems, health care delivery (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
the first professional preparation program for health educators began during which period of the twentieth century?
the 1920s (1922)
the goal of the Hill-Burton Act in 1946 was to enhance the quality of
hospitals
communicable diseases remain a concern in the 21st century because they are the primary cause for
days missed from work and school
the organization in the US with the main responsibility for improving health is
the department of health and human services
john snow's removal of a drinking water pump handle in 1854 in London, stopped a
cholera epidemic
the Shattuck report marked the beginning of the
modern era of public health (1850)
the economically disadvantaged generally uses what point of entry into the health care system?
the emergency department
the man credited with successfully demonstrating the process of vaccination as a protection against smallpox, in 1796, was
Dr. Edward Jenner
the federal government's approach to public health issues in the US during nineteenth century could be characterized as one of
"hands off" laissez faire
the modern era of public health began in
1850
the germ theory of disease was proposed in 1862 by
louis pasteur
the public health service grew out of what earlier organization?
marine hospital service
t/f a community is a group of people who have common characteristics
true
t/f the medicare and medicaid bills passed by congress in 1965 were amendments to the social security act of 1935.
true
t/f medicaid is a program that primarily assists in the payment of medical bills for the elderly
false
t/f the ability of the health care system to prevent, protect against, quickly respond to, and recover from health emergencies defines medical preparedness
true
agencies that are funded primarily through tax dollars are referred to as
governmental agencies
the secretary of health and human services is
appointed by the President
which agency maintains records, analyzes disease trends, and publishes epidemiological reports on all types of diseases?
centers for disease control and prevention
which agency is a leading medical research center, and the federal focal point for medical research in the US?
national institute of health
an example of a quasi-governmental health organization is
the national science foundation
nongovernmental health agencies are funded primarily by
private donations
most voluntary health agencies exist at the
local, state, and national levels
the mission of professional health organizations is to
promote high standards of professional practice for their specific professions
the main reason for corporate involvement in community health is due to
the provision of health care benefits to employees
the largest and most visible international health agency is the
world health organization
the food and drug administration sets health and safety standards for all
food, cosmetics, drugs (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
inspection of restaurants is the task of the
local health department
one of the world health organization's most noteworthy achievements was helping to eradicate smallpox (1967)
true
t/f the superfund legislation was enacted to deal wit the cleanup of hazardous substances in the environment
true
t/f the core functions of public health are utilized by state health agencies
true
t/f the american red cross is classified as a quasi-governmental health organization
true
an epidemic curve depicting a distribution of cases traceable to multiple sources of exposure is a
propagated epidemic curve
a probability statement about the association between a particular disease and a specific risk factor is
an odds ratio
when using criteria of causation, the criterion that addresses the issue of whether the associate has been reported in a variety of people, exposed in a variety of settings, and can have repeatable results by other researchers is
consistency
when using criteria of causation, the criterion that asks if the disease or health problem associated with the exposure is the only one is
specificity
epidemiology is sometimes referred to as
population medicine
an outbreak of disease over a wide geographic region is a
pandemic
the number of events that occur in a given population in a given period of time is a
rate
morbidity rates measure
sickness
the book, published annually, that is the standard summary of statistics on the social, political, and economic organization of the US is
the statistical abstract of the US
the national health survey that is a state-based telephone survey of the civilian, non-institutional, adult population that seeks to ascertain the prevalence of high-risk behaviors is the
behavioral risk factor surveillance system
studies that seek to describe the extent of disease in regard to person, time, and place are
descriptive studies
the practice of assigning subjects to treatments or control groups in a completely random manner is
randomization
t/f a primary care physician is concerned with the course of a disease in an individual, while an epidemiologist is concerned with the course of disease in a population
true
t/f an endemic disease is on that occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course
true
t/f people afflicted with a disease are referred to as cases
true
t/f the rate of an illness in a population is hte natality rate
false
t/f a disease that lasts three months or less is a chronic disease
false
t/f the average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time is their life expectancy
true
t/f vital statistics are statistical summaries of records of major life events such as births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and infant deaths
true
t/f an epidemiological study aimed at testing hypotheses is a descriptive study
false
appendicitis and poisoning are examples of
acute noncommunicable diseases
osteoarthritis and diabetes are examples of
chronic noncommunicable diseases
the capability of a communicable disease agent to cause disease in a susceptible host is
pathenogenicity
a pathogenic agent enters a susceptible host through a
portal of entry
tuberculosis and influenza are examples of
airborne diseases
when prioritizing prevention and control efforts, health officials use data from
leading causes of death, years of potential life lost, economic cost to society (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
health education and health promotion programs are examples of
primary prevention
to retrain, reeducate, and rehabilitate a patient who has already incurred a disability is
tertiary prevention
health screenings are important measures in
secondary prevention
inspection of restaurants and immunization programs that reach all citizens are examples of
primary prevention of communicable diseases
self-diagnosis and treatment with nonpresciption medication of the common cold is an example of
secondary prevention of communicable diseases
adequate food supply and getting regular exercise are examples of
primary prevention of noncommunicable diseases
t/f drugs, pesticides, and food additives are examples of chemical agents
true
t/f AIDS and tuberculosis are examples of chronic communicable diseases
true
t/f coronary heart disease is an example of a chronic noncommunicable disease
true
t/f in the chain of infection, a disease-producing agent leaves its reservoir through a portal of entry
false
t/f noncommunicable diseases have complex etiologies
true
t/f diseases of the heart and blood vessels are the leading cause of death in the US
true
t/f the ability of a biological agent to enter and grow in the host is pathogenicity
false
t/f the early diagnosis and prompt treatment of diseases before the disease becomes advanced and disability becomes severe is secondary prevention
true
relationships and structures within a community that promote cooperation for mutual benefit describes
social capital
an assumption one can make while organizing a community is
people should participate in making, adjusting, or controlling the major changes within their communities
an example of a community gatekeeper is
a politician, a teacher, a member of the clergy (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
when mapping community capacity, the least accessible assets are
potential building blocks
the final steps in community organizing/building include
looping back
a process by which an intervention is planned to help meet the needs of a priority population is
program planning
the means by which structure and organization are given to the planning process are
planning models
the first procedural step in health program planning is
needs assessment
program goals
are more encompassing than objectives
activities that will help the priority population meet the objectives and, in the process, achieve the program goals are referred ti as
an intervention or treatment
"when asked in class, 50% of students will be able to list the four principles of cardiovascular conditioning," is an example of a
learning outcome
the best known and maybe the most often used health promotion planning model is the
precede/proceed model
when implementing a health promotion program, which of the following is advised?
pilot test the program with people like those in the priority population
t/f community capacity is the characteristics of communities that affect their ability to identify, mobilize, and address social and public health problems
true
components of the coordinated school health program include
physical education, nutritional services, health promotion for staff (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
the group whose primary role is to provide coordination of the various components of the coordinated school health program is the
school health council
providing direct health care to students and staff, providing screening and referral for health conditions, and promoting health are all responsibilities of the
school nurse
numerous resources became available to help schools develop policies because of the requirements of
the child nutrition and wic reauthorization act of 2004
priority health content for a school health curriculum includes
healthy eating
priority health content for a school health curriculum includes
mental and emotional heath, tobacco, personal health and wellness (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
barriers to school health education include the
lack of time in the school year/day
the primary responsibility for the health of school-aged children lies with
their parents/guardians
which individuals are most often selected as the coordinator of the school health council
school nurses and health educators
most school-based health centers operating today are in
urban areas
because of the low priority given to health in many school districts, much of the health education is provided by
individuals other than health education specialists
a good health education curriculum provides
learning objectives and learning activities, possible instructional resources, methods for assessments, standards (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
t/f all school districts are required to have at least one full-time school nurse
false
t/f the portion of the school environment that encompasses attitudes, feelings, and values of students and staff is the physical environment
false
t/f things like indoor air quality, lighting, playgrounds, and school bus safety are part of the school's psychosocial environment
false
teenagers who become pregnant and have a child are more likely than their peers who are not mothers to
not get married or have a marriage end in divorce
approximately how many teenage girls in the US get pregnant at least once before the age of 20?
one-third
groups at higher risk of unintended pregnancy are
those living in poverty
the process of determining the preferred number and spacing of children in one's family and choosing the appropriate means to achieve this preference defines
family planning
title X was signed into law to provide
family planning services and help to all who wanted them but couldn't afford them
those served by family planning clinics funded the title X are predominately
poor
risk assessment, treatment for medical conditions or risk reduction, and education are the major components of
prenatal health care
a low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than
5.5 pounds at birth
the neonatal mortality period is death that occurs up to
28 days after birth
the leading modifiable cause of low-birth-weight during pregnancy is
cigarette smoking
which of the following is (are) advantages to breastfeeding?
help babies resist infections and other diseases; help babies vomit less often; improves maternal health (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
the majority of unintentional deaths (the leading cause of death) in children are the result of
motor vehicle crashes
t/f a medical doctor who specializes in the care of newborn children up to two months of age is a neurologist
false
adolescents and young adults are classified as those ages
15-24
a critical period in life, during which many health-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors are adopted and consolidated is
adolescents and young adulthood
most of the physical threats to health for adolescents and young adults stems from
behavior
the diseases that cause considerable morbidity in adolescents and young adults are
STD
approximately how many female college students reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse/assault in the past school year?
25%
the number one cause of death in the adult age group is
cancer
the best single behavioral change Americans can make to reduce morbidity and mortality is to
stop smoking
the racial/ethic group of high school students most likely to report current cigarette usage is
white Americans
the highest rates of smokeless tobacco use in high school students is in
white males
for adults, the greatest risk of injuries involve
motor vehicles
homicide and suicide rates for adolescents and young adults have
increased significantly over the last 50 years
exercise and nutrition program that help reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease for adults are examples of
primary prevention
programs for adults that emphasize self, or clinical screenings to identify and control disease processes in their early stages, such as mammography, are examples of
secondary prevention
an increase in federal tobacco taxes is being used to help fund
the state children's health insurance program (CHIP)
t/f statistics indicate that the more education a person has, the less likely he or she is to use tobacco
false
in the US, people are considered older adults when they reach the age of
65
factors that affect population size and age include
fertility rates, mortality rates, migration (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
a comparison between those individuals whom society considers economically unproductive and those considered economically productive is the
dependency ratio
the largest percentage of elder income comes from
social security
in terms of housing, the largest majority of elders
are homeowners
the leading causes of death for elders are
heart disease, cancer, stroke, and CLRD
elder abuse and neglect are special problems for elders because they are
frail
housekeeping, transportation, and assistance with business affairs are examples of
instrumental tasks
eating, bathing, and toileting are examples of
tasks of daily living
walking, getting in and out of bed and chair, and dressing are examples of
activities of daily living
one who helps identify the health care needs of an individual and also personally performs caregiving services is a
care provider
a person unable to leave home for normal activities is considered
homebound
planned short-term care, usually for the purpose of relieving a full-time informal caregiver is
respite care
t/f once someone is an elder, it is too late to gain benefit from changing health behaviors
false
people of hawaii, guam, and samoa are referred to as
pacific islanders
indian health services is an agency within
the department of health and human services
people who flee one area or country to seek shelter or protection from danger in another are referred to as
refugees
individuals who migrate from one country to another for the purpose of seeking permanent residence are referred to as
immigrants
people born in and owing allegiance to a country other than the one in which they live are referred to as
aliens
the factor considering to be the most influential single contributor to premature morbidity and mortality by many public health researchers is
socioeconomic status
the largest minority group in the US is
Americans of Hispanic origin
nearly all hispanics are classified as
white americans
the minority group with the lowest high school completion rates is
hispanics
asian americans are generally concentrated in the
western states
high school completion rates in the US are highest for
asian americans
the concept of balance related to health and imbalance related to disease is a belief of
asian americans
t/f asian americans have an infant mortality rate that is more than two times that of white american infants
false
t/f hispanic origin is a racial classification
false
people with good mental health are able to
function under adversity, adapt to changes around them, and curb hate and guilt (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
the most influential book in mental health is
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition
an affective disorder characterized by a dysphoric mood, usually depression, or loss of interest or pleasure in almost all usual activities or pastimes is
major depression
ann affective disorder characterized by distinct periods of elevated mood alternation with periods of depression is
bipolar disorder
diseases that result from chronic exposure to excess levels of stressors, which produce a General Adaptation Syndrome response are
diseases of adaptation
psychophysiological disorders associated with stress include
depression, hypertension, skin disorders (ALL OF THE ABOVE)
the widespread use of lobotomies became unnecessary because of
antipsychotic and antidepressive drugs
deinstitutionalization from state mental hospitals began in the
1950s
the main force that expedited deinstitutionalization was
antipsychotic drugs
treatment of mental disorders through verbal communication is
psychotherapy
the concept of equality in health care coverage for people with mental illness and those with other medical illnesses or injuries is
parity
use of a drug when it is detrimental to one's health or well-being is drug
abuse
the most abused illicit drug in the US is
marijuana
drugs that reduce pain and numb the senses are
narcotics
cocaine is a
stimulant
synesthesia is a mixing of
the senses
an illicit drug produced in dangerous clandestine labs across the country is
methamphetamines
drugs that are often used because they lower anxiety and inhibitions are
depressants
the most popular club drug is
ecstasy
the drugs that are often the choice for the young due to low cost and easy availability are
inhalants
the largest institution in the world devoted to drug abuse research is the
national institute on drug abuse
the drug abuse resistance education program is implemented in
classrooms
MADD, AA and SADD are examples of
voluntary health organizations
the smallest amount of the federal drug control budget is spent on
prevention