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PRE-AP BIOLOGY CLASSIFICATION TEST
Terms in this set (67)
The science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a unique universally accepted scientific name. Another definition is science that specializes in naming and classifying organisms.
A group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
Large taxonomic group made up of closely related phyla that is the top level in Linnaeus's classification hierarchy
Greek philosopher who first classified organisms as plants or animals
A characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
a group of closely related classes
A model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
An organism that CAN'T make its own food and gets its energy from consuming other organisms
Domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi
Organisms that "like" hot (high temperature) environments
organism that can makes its own food using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
organism whose cells contain nuclei and organelles surrounded by membranes
organism that "likes" high salt environments
Kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells DO NOT have cell walls or chloroplasts
Kingdom of "ancient" unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan and are often found in harsh environments such as volcano hot springs, brine pools, and other anaerobic conditions
Kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made of peptidoglycan
Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs including mushrooms, mosses, and yeast that obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Kingdom composed of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose and chloroplasts
The most inclusive taxonomic category based on ribosomal RNA which is larger than a kingdom
Part of a scientific name that is always capitalized
group of similar orders
group of similar families
series of paired statements that describe characteristics of different organisms that can be used to classify and identify living things
Substance made of sugars and peptides that is found in the cell walls of Eubacteria
Polysaccharide made by joining glucose subunits which makes plants and some protists sturdy
What is the genus of Rhizopus nigricans
A useful classification system
gives each organism a unique name
In classifying organisms, ORDERS are grouped together into
The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories is the
The higher the level of the taxon, the ____________ in time is the common ancestor of all the organisms in the taxon.
study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
unique trait that is used to construct a cladogram showing evolutionary relationships between organisms
In a scientific name, what is always capitalized?
In a scientific name, what is not capitalized?
In a scientific name, both the genus and species are written in ____________or _______________.
italics or underlined
Use the rules for scientific names to write the scientific name for humans
Homo Sapien (with an underline)
What two languages are used today when determining scientific names for newly discovered species?
Latin and Greek
Silly phrase to help remember Linnaeus's hierarchy in order:
Dumb Kings Play Chess on Front Green Stairs
Name the 7 taxonomic levels in Linnaeus's classification system in order from largest to smallest:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How are genes used to help scientists classify organisms
The more genes organisms have in common, the closer their relationship.
A scientist analyzes the insulin molecules, which are protein molecules found in three different species: A, B, & C. The insulin from A is different from B in 6 different ways and from C in 3 ways. Insulin B is different from C in 2 ways. Which two species appear to be most closely related? Explain
B-C are most closely related because they have the least number of differences in their protein molecules
A-B - 6 differences
A-C - 3 differences
B-C - 2 differences
What category is larger and more inclusive than a kingdom?
The 3 Domain system divides organisms into groups based on similarities in their _______?
Which of the 5 original kingdoms was divided in two to make Eubacteria and Archaebacteria groups used today?
Which domain includes organisms from more than one kingdom?
Name the 3 domains in the 3 Domain System
Archae, Bacteris, Eukarya
Name the 6 kingdoms used to classify organisms
Protista, Archaebacteria, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Eubacteria
Pro Archie plants fungi animals everywhere
You have just discovered a new organism that can't make its own food, has a nucleus, and has CHITIN in its cell wall. What Kingdom and Domain would you place it in?
Kingdom - fungi
Domain - Eukarya
Tell how cell walls of some protists are like the cell walls of plants
They contain cellulose
Tell how the cell walls of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria are different:
Archaebacteria has no peptidoglycon
Eubacteria has peptidoglycon
Tell one way plants differ from animals:
Plants have cell walls, are non-motile (don't move), and are autotrophs (can make own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis). Animals have no cell walls, are motile, and are heterotrophs (can't make their own feed and have to consume other organisms).
Prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Prokaryotes whose cell walls lack peptidoglycan
Unicellular, colonial, or multicellular eukaryotes that show the widest variety of characteristics
Multicellular autotrophs with chloroplasts whose cell walls contain cellulose
Eurkaryotic heterotrophs whose cell walls contain chitin
Heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes without cell wall or chloroplasts
What domain does Kingdom protista belong to?
What domain does Kingdom Eubacteria belong to?
What domain does Kingdom Fungi belong to ?
What domain does Kingdom Archaebacteria belong to?
What domain does Kingdom Plantae belong to?
What domain does Kingdom Animalia belong to?