67 terms

PRE-AP BIOLOGY CLASSIFICATION TEST

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Taxonomy
The science of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a unique universally accepted scientific name. Another definition is science that specializes in naming and classifying organisms.
Taxon
A group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
Kingdom
Large taxonomic group made up of closely related phyla that is the top level in Linnaeus's classification hierarchy
Aristotle
Greek philosopher who first classified organisms as plants or animals
Derived character
A characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
Phylum
a group of closely related classes
molecular clock
A model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
binomial nomenclature
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
cladogram
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
heterotroph
An organism that CAN'T make its own food and gets its energy from consuming other organisms
Eukarya
Domain of all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
chitin
Polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi
thermophiles
Organisms that "like" hot (high temperature) environments
autotroph
organism that can makes its own food using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
Eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei and organelles surrounded by membranes
Halophile
organism that "likes" high salt environments
Animalia
Kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells DO NOT have cell walls or chloroplasts
Archeabacteria
Kingdom of "ancient" unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidoglycan and are often found in harsh environments such as volcano hot springs, brine pools, and other anaerobic conditions
Eubacteria
Kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made of peptidoglycan
Protista
Kingdom composed of eukaryotes that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
Fungi
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs including mushrooms, mosses, and yeast that obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
Plantae
Kingdom composed of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose and chloroplasts
Domain
The most inclusive taxonomic category based on ribosomal RNA which is larger than a kingdom
Genus
Part of a scientific name that is always capitalized
Class
group of similar orders
Order
group of similar families
Dichotomous key
series of paired statements that describe characteristics of different organisms that can be used to classify and identify living things
Peptidoglycan
Substance made of sugars and peptides that is found in the cell walls of Eubacteria
Cellulose
Polysaccharide made by joining glucose subunits which makes plants and some protists sturdy
What is the genus of Rhizopus nigricans
Rhizopus
A useful classification system
gives each organism a unique name
In classifying organisms, ORDERS are grouped together into
families
The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories is the
kingdom
The higher the level of the taxon, the ____________ in time is the common ancestor of all the organisms in the taxon.
further back
phylogeny
study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
derived character
unique trait that is used to construct a cladogram showing evolutionary relationships between organisms
In a scientific name, what is always capitalized?
Genus
In a scientific name, what is not capitalized?
Species
In a scientific name, both the genus and species are written in ____________or _______________.
italics or underlined
Use the rules for scientific names to write the scientific name for humans
Homo Sapien (with an underline)
What two languages are used today when determining scientific names for newly discovered species?
Latin and Greek
Silly phrase to help remember Linnaeus's hierarchy in order:
Dumb Kings Play Chess on Front Green Stairs
Name the 7 taxonomic levels in Linnaeus's classification system in order from largest to smallest:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How are genes used to help scientists classify organisms
The more genes organisms have in common, the closer their relationship.
A scientist analyzes the insulin molecules, which are protein molecules found in three different species: A, B, & C. The insulin from A is different from B in 6 different ways and from C in 3 ways. Insulin B is different from C in 2 ways. Which two species appear to be most closely related? Explain
B-C are most closely related because they have the least number of differences in their protein molecules

A-B - 6 differences
A-C - 3 differences
B-C - 2 differences
What category is larger and more inclusive than a kingdom?
Domain
The 3 Domain system divides organisms into groups based on similarities in their _______?
DNA
Which of the 5 original kingdoms was divided in two to make Eubacteria and Archaebacteria groups used today?
Monero
Which domain includes organisms from more than one kingdom?
Eukarya
Name the 3 domains in the 3 Domain System
Archae, Bacteris, Eukarya
Name the 6 kingdoms used to classify organisms
Protista, Archaebacteria, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Eubacteria

Pro Archie plants fungi animals everywhere
You have just discovered a new organism that can't make its own food, has a nucleus, and has CHITIN in its cell wall. What Kingdom and Domain would you place it in?
Kingdom - fungi
Domain - Eukarya
Tell how cell walls of some protists are like the cell walls of plants
They contain cellulose
Tell how the cell walls of Archaebacteria and Eubacteria are different:
Archaebacteria has no peptidoglycon
Eubacteria has peptidoglycon
Tell one way plants differ from animals:
Plants have cell walls, are non-motile (don't move), and are autotrophs (can make own food through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis). Animals have no cell walls, are motile, and are heterotrophs (can't make their own feed and have to consume other organisms).
Eubacteria
Prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan
Archaebacteria
Prokaryotes whose cell walls lack peptidoglycan
Protista
Unicellular, colonial, or multicellular eukaryotes that show the widest variety of characteristics
Plantae
Multicellular autotrophs with chloroplasts whose cell walls contain cellulose
Fungi
Eurkaryotic heterotrophs whose cell walls contain chitin
Animalia
Heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes without cell wall or chloroplasts
What domain does Kingdom protista belong to?
Eukarya
What domain does Kingdom Eubacteria belong to?
Bacteria
What domain does Kingdom Fungi belong to ?
Eukarya
What domain does Kingdom Archaebacteria belong to?
Archaea
What domain does Kingdom Plantae belong to?
Eukarya
What domain does Kingdom Animalia belong to?
Eukarya
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