Psych 110 - Unit 1 (chapters 1-4)

The scientific study of behavior and mental processes
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Is concerned with teaching and learning processes, such as the relationship between motivation and school performanceEducational PsychologyConsiders the relationship between people and their physical environment, including climate change issues.Environmental PsychologyConsiders how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestorsEvolutionary PsychologyStudies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the worldExperimental PsychologyFocuses on the legal issues, such as determining the accuracy of witness memoriesForensic PsychologyExplores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or diseaseHealth PsychologyConcerned with the psychology of the workplaceIndustrial/Organizational psychologyFocuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from anotherPersonality PsychologyFocuses on assessing large-scale programs, such as the Head Start preschool program, to determine whether they are effective in meeting their goalsProgram EvaluationFocuses on issues such as discrimination against women and the causes of violence against womenPsychology of WomenDevoted to counseling children in elementary and secondary schools who have academic or emotional problemsSchool PsychologyIs the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by othersSocial PsychologyApplies psychology to athletic activity and exerciseSport PsychologyWhat are some settings where Psychologists can work?- institutions of higher learning - private practice treating clients - hospitals, clinics, mental health centers - government human-services organizations - business, schools, prisons, the military - department of homeland securityOnly _____ of active psychologists are members of racial minority groups.14%Why are there consequences to the underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists?- The field is diminished by a lack of diverse perspectives and talents - Underrepresentation deters minorities from entering the field - Because people tend to prefer to receive therapy from their own ethnic group, minorities are underservedIs a research degree that require a dissertation based on an original investigationPhD (Doctor of Philosophy)Is obtained by psychologists who want to focus on the treatment of psychological disordersPsyD (Doctor of Psychology)Why are Psychologists distinct from Psychiatrists?Psychiatrists are doctors who have a medical degree to specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disordersAccording to the American Psychological Association, undergraduate psychology programs should instruct students in:- the key content of psychology - Critical thinking and an understanding of the scientific method - Ethical and social responsibility - Strong communication skills - Opportunities for professional developmentWho believed that children were born into the world with minds like "blank slates" (tabula rasa in Latin) and that their experiences determined what kind of adults they would become?John LockeWho established the first experimental laboratory in the late 19th century devoted to the psychology in Leipzig, Germany?Wilhelm WundtWho set up a laboratory dedicated to psychology in the late 19th century in Cambridge, Massachusetts?William JamesA focus on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities. - Developed by Wilhelm WundtStructuralismA procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus.IntrospectionAn approach that concentrates on what the mind does and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments. - Developed by William JamesFunctionalismUses a series of principles to describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes.Gestalt PsychologyWhat do Gestalt Psychologists propose?"The whole is different from the sum of its parts," meaning our perception, pr understanding, of objects is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up our perceptions.- Worked on animal behaviors - First woman to receive a doctorate in PsychologyMargaret Floy Washburn- Was one of the first psychologists to focus on child development and on women's issues - Refuted the view that women's abilities periodically declined during their menstrual cycleLeta Stetter Hollingworth- Studies memory and was the first female president of the American Psychological Association - Studied memory in the early part of the 20th centuryMary Calkins- Focused on the social and cultural factors behind personality - Founded the American Journal of PsychoanalysisKaren Horney- Was the first woman to head a psychology department at a state university, spearheading the study of personality traits.June Etta Downey- Made notable contributions to the treatment of abnormal behaviorAnna Freud (Sigmund Freud's daughter)- Pioneered work on how children of color grew to recognize racial differencesMamie Phipps ClarkWhat are the Five Major Perspectives of Psychology?- Neuroscience - Cognitive - Behavioral - Humanistic - PsychodynamicThe approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions.Neuroscience PerspectiveThe approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts aboutPsychodynamic PerspectiveThe approach that suggests that the focus should be on external behavior that can be objectively measured and observed - John B. Watson was the first to use this approach - It was championed by B.F. SkinnerBehavioral PerspectiveThe approach that focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the worldCognitive PerspectiveSuggests individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior - Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were central figures in the development of this perspective - Emphasis on Free WillHumanistic PerspectiveKnow Psychology's Key Issues and Controversies:- Nature (heredity) vs Nurture (environment) - Conscious vs Unconscious causes of behavior - Observable Behavior vs Internal Mental Processes - Free Will vs Determinism - Individual Differences vs Universal PrinciplesThe idea that behavior is caused primarily by choices that are made freely by the individualFree WillThe idea that people's behavior is produced primarily by factors outside their willful controlDeterminismAn approach through which psychologists systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interestThe Scientific MethodWhat are the Steps of the Scientific Method?1. Observe a behavior 2. Predict or form a hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis, collect data 4. Interpret data to validate hypothesis (create a theory) 5. Communicate findingsBroad explanations and predictions concerning observations of interest.TheoriesThe theory that the greater the number of bystanders, the more the responsibility to help is perceived as shared, and the smaller the share of the responsibility each person feels. - Developed by Bibb Latané and John DarleyTheory of Diffusion of ResponsibilityA prediction, stemming from a theory, stated in a way that allows it to be tested.HypothesisThe translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observedOperation DefinitionA systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge and is a central ingredient of the scientific method in Psychology.ResearchExisting data are examined to test a hypothesis - Census Documents - College Records - Online Databases - Newspaper ClippingArchival ResearchWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of Archival Research?Advantage: inexpensive Disadvantage: the data may not be in a form that allows the research to test a hypothesis fullyAn investigator observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation. - significantly, the researcher simply records what occursNaturalistic ObservationWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of Naturalistic Observation?Advantage: Obtains a sample of what people do in their natural habitat Disadvantage: The inability to control any factors of interestPeople chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudesSurvey ResearchWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of Survey Research?Advantage: If the sample is representative, it makes it possible to infer how a larger group would respond Disadvantage: Results will be largely inconsequential if the sample is not representative. Survey respondents may not be truthful about their attitudes or may be unaware of their true attitudesAn in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or a small group of people - might include psychological testing, where a carefully designed set of questions is used to gain some insight into the personality of the individual or group.Case StudyWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of Case Studies?Advantage: insights can improve our understanding of people in general Disadvantage: small samples or unique individuals make it impossible to make valid generalizations about a larger populationBehavior, events or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some wayVariablesThe relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated or correlatedCorrelation (note: Correlation DOES NOT equal Causation)What is a disadvantage of Correlational Research?Correlational research cannot demonstrate cause-and-effect relationshipsAs the value of one variable increases, the value of the other variable will decrease.Negative CorrelationAs the value of one variable increases, so will the value of the other variable.Positive CorrelationThe investigation of the relationship between two (or more) variables by deliberately producing a change in one variable in a situation and observing the effects on the second variable.ExperimentThe change that an experimenter deliberately produced in a situation.Experimental ManipulationWhat are the advantages and disadvantages of Experimental Research?Advantage: The only way psychologists can establish cause-and-effect relationships Disadvantage: To be valid, requires careful controlsAny group participating in an experiment that receives a treatment.Experimental GroupIs the manipulation implemented by the experimenter.TreatmentA group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment.Control GroupThe variable that is manipulated by an experimenterIndependent VariableThe variable that is measured in an experimentDependent VariableA procedure in which participants are assigned to different experimental groups or "conditions" on the basis of chance alone.Random Assignment to ConditionRepetition of research, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and group of participants, to increase confidence in prior findings - Critical for full confidence about the meaning of research studies - Many replication studies have failed to support original findingsReplicated ResearchA procedure that permits psychologists to combine the results of many separate studies into one overall conclusionMeta-AnalysisWhat are the Guidelines of Research:- Protection of participants from physical and mental harm - The right of participants to privacy regarding their behavior - The assurance that participation in research is completely voluntary - The necessity of informing participants about the nature of procedures before their participation in the experiment - All experiments must be reviewed by an independent panel before being conductedA document signed by participants affirming that they have been told about the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involveInformed ConsentAfter a participation in a study, participants receive an explanation of the study and the procedures that were involvedDebriefing (the only time informed consent and debriefing can be eliminated is when risks are minimal, as in a purely observational study in a public place.)What does Animal Research allow:- posing different questions in different ways - Greater experimental control - Procedures that might ethically not be possible with peopleWhen are procedures that subject animals to distress permitted:- When an alternative procedure is unavailable - When the research is justified by its prospective valueFactors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable in an experimentExperimental BiasHow can an Experimental Bias mess up an experiment?an experimental bias can produce the expected result when the researcher unintentionally transmits cues to participantsHow can participant expectations affect experiments?Participant Expectations about appropriate behavior can affect results and make the participant behave differentlya false treatment, such as a pill, drug, or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredientPlaceboBoth the experimenter and the participant are "blind" to the nature of the substance being administeredDouble-Blind ProcedurePsychologists who specialize in considering the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior.Behavioral NeuroscientistsNerve cells, the basic components of the nervous system.NeuronsWhat can neurons do that other cells can't:- communicate with other cells - transmit information across relatively long distancesA cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons.DendritesCarries messages received by the dendrites to other neurons.AxonThe part of the axon, like a small bulge at the end, that sends messages to other neurons.Terminal ButtonsA protective coating of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.Myelin SheathWhat type of law do Neurons follow?All-or-None Law (They are either on or off)The state before a neuron is triggered, in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within the neuronResting StateAn electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron's axon when it is set off by a "trigger," changing the neuron's charge from negative to positiveAction PotentialSpecialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior.Mirror NeuronsWhat do mirror neurons provide the possible basis for:- Feelings of empathy - Development of languages in humansThe space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages.SynapseChemicals that carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiving neuron.NeurotransmittersA chemical message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon.Excitatory MessagesA chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire.Inhibitory MessagesReabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button.ReuptakePermit certain neurotransmitters to remain active for a longer period at certain synapses, reducing the symptoms of depression.Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)Located in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system, especially some organs of the parasympathetic nervous system.Acetylcholine (ACh)Excitatory in the brain and autonomic nervous system; inhibitory elsewhereAcetylcholine (ACh)What is the function of Acetylcholine (ACh)?Muscle movement, cognitive functioning.Located in the brain and spinal Cord, has an Excitatory effectGlutamateWhat is the function of Glutamate?memoryLocated in the brain and spinal cord, is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter.Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)What is the function of Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)?Eating, Aggression, SleepingLocated in the brain, has an inhibitory or excitatory effect?DopamineWhat is the function of Dopamine?movement control, pleasure and reward, attentionLocated in the brain and spinal cord, gives an inhibitory effect.SerotoninWhat is the function of Serotonin?Sleeping, eating, mood, pain, depressionLocated in the brain and spinal cord, is primarily inhibitory, except in the hippocampus.EndorphinsWhat is the function of Endorphins?Pain suppression, pleasurable feelings, appetites, placebosWhat are the two basic structures of the human nervous system:- Central Nervous System - Peripheral Nervous SystemThe part of the nervous system that includes the brain and the spinal cord.Central Nervous SystemThe bundle of neurons that leaves the brain and runs down the length of the back. - Main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body.Spinal CordAn automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus.ReflexTransmit information from the perimeter of the body to the nervous system and brain (i.e., information arriving at central nervous system)Sensory (afferent) NeuronsCommunicate information from the brain and nervous system to the muscles and glands. (i.e., information exiting the central nervous system)Motor (efferent) Neuronsthe part of the nervous system that includes the autonomic and somatic subdivisions - Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, it branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body.Peripheral Nervous SystemSpecializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs.Somatic DivisionControls the involuntary movement of the heart glands, lungs, and other organs.Autonomic DivisionPrepares the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat. - Often called the "flight-or-fight" responseSympathetic DivisionActs to calm the body after an emergency has ended.Parasympathetic DivisionThe branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors.Evolutionary PsychologyThe study of the effects of heredity on behavior.Behavioral GeneticsA chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream.Endocrine SystemThe major component of the endocrine system - The "master gland" that secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system.Pituitary GlandRecords electrical activity in the brain through electrodes placed on the outside of the skull.Electroencephalogram (EEG)Provides a detailed, three-dimensional computer generated image of the brain structures and activity by aiming a powerful magnetic field at the brain or other parts of the body.Functional Magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)Shows biochemical activity within the brain at a given moment.Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scansElectrical activity in a tiny region of the brain is interrupted by bombarding it with a strong magnetic field, and researchers note the effects on brain functioning.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)The "old brain," which controls basic functions such as eating and sleeping and is common to all vertebrates (species with backbones).Central CoreContains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.HindbrainControls a number of critical body functions, the most important of which are breathing and heartbeat.MedullaA bridge in the hindbrain that acts as a transmitter of motor information, coordinating muscles and integrating movement between the right and left halves of the body. - Also involved in regulating sleepPonsThe part of the brain that controls bodily balance.CerebellumThe part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons, it is related to changes in the level of arousal of the body. - A nerve network that passes through the middle of the brain, called the midbrain, and into the front-most part of the brain, called the forebrain.Reticular FormationThe part of the brain located in the middle of the central core and hidden within the forebrain that acts primarily to relay information about the senses.ThalamusA tiny part of the brain, located below the thalamus, that maintains homeostasis — a steady internal environment for the body — and produces and regulates behavior critical to the basic survival of the species - Eating, drinking, and sexual behaviorHypothalamusborders the top of the central core and has connections with the cerebral cortex; the part of the brain that controls eating, aggression, and reproduction. - Includes the amygdala and hippocampusLimbic SystemThe "new brain," responsible for the most sophisticated information processing in the brain.Cerebral CortexLobe at the front center of the cortex.Frontal LobesLobe behind the frontal lobes.Parietal LobesLobe in the lower-center part of the cortex.Temporal LobesLobe behind the temporal lobes.Occipital LobesWhat are the deep grooves that separate the four lobes.SulciLobe responsible for vision.Occipital lobeLobe responsible for hearing, language, processing & memory.Temporal LobeLobe responsible for intelligence, personality, emotions, attentions, judgment, problem solving, voluntary muscles & speech production.Frontal LobeLobe responsible for spatial location, attention, motor control, sense of touch, pain & temperature.Parietal LobeThe part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement.Motor AreaThe site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue.Sensory AreaArea in the parietal lobe encompasses specific locations associated with the ability to perceive touch and pressure in a particular area of the body.SomatosensoryArea located in the temporal lobe is responsible for the sense of hearing.AuditoryArea is located in the occipital lobe.VisualOne of the major regions of the cerebral cortex; the sit of the higher mental processes, such as thought, language, memory and speechAssociation Arealocated on the lower frontal lobe; termed expressive aphasia. - People have trouble saying words but can understand language. They can form ideas and know what they want to say but can't form sentencesBroca's Aphasialocated on the temporal lobe; termed receptive aphasia. - People can't understand words. They speak with regular rhythm and grammar, but the words don't make sense.Wernicke's AphasiaThe brain's ability to change throughout the life span through the addition of new neurons, new interconnections between neurons, and the reorganization of information-processing areasNeuroplasticityThe creation of new neurons, is now known to occur in certain areas of the brain in adulthoodNeurogenesisSymmetrical left and right halves of the brain that control the side of the body opposite to their locationHemispheresHemisphere that processes information sequentially, particularly in verbal areas.Left HemisphereHemisphere that processes information globally, particularly in nonverbal areas.Right HemisphereThe dominance of one hemisphere of the brain in specific functions, such as language.LateralizationActivation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy.SensationSorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli - Carried out by the sense organs and brainPerceptionEnergy that produces a response in a sense organStimulusStudy of the relationship between: - Physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of themPsychophysicsSmallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected - The stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the timeAbsolute ThresholdBackground stimulation that interferes with the perception of other stimuli - Unwanted stimuli that interfere with other sensesNoiseSmallest level of added or reduced stimulation - Required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred - Also called a 'just noticeable difference"Difference ThresholdA basic law of psychophysics staging that a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion to the intensity of an initial stimulus (rather than a constant amount)Weber's LawAdjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuliAdaptationVision starts with ___________, the physical energy that stimulates the eye.LightA form of electromagnetic radiation waves, measured in wavelengths, the distance between peaks of the lightwaves.LightThe range of wavelengths that the human eye can detectVisual SpectrumRays of light first travel through the ____________, a transparent, protective window at the front of the eye.CorneaTransparent, protective window - Refracts light due to its curved shape - Primary role in focusingCorneaColored part of the eye.IrisDark hole in the center of the iris - Opening depends on the amount of light in the environment - In dim surroundings it opens to allow more light to enterPupilFocuses light by changing shape - becomes flatter when viewing distant objects and rounder when looking at closer objectsLensProcess of lens focusing light by changing its own thicknessAccommodationPart of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain.RetinaThin, cylindrical receptor cells that are highly sensitive to lightRodsCone-shaped receptor cells responsible for sharp focus and color perception, particularly in bright light - Concentrated in the foveaConesSeeing objects that are outside of the main center of focusPeripheral Vision________ and ________ are involved in dark adaptation - Phenomenon of adjusting to dim light after being in brighter lightRods & ConesSpecialized neurons that are activated only by visual stimuli having specific features - Particular shape or patternFeature DetectorsSuggests that there are three kinds of cones in the retina each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths - Additional evidence from some types of color deficiency or color blindnessTrichromatic Theory of Color VisionReceptor cells are linked in pairs, working in opposition to each otherOpponent-Process Theory of Color VisionWhy do color afterimages occur?Occur because activity in the retina continues even when you are no longer staring at the original picture.The process by which we identify the direction from which a sound is coming Location of the outer ears on different sides of the head helpsSound LocalizationMovement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration.SoundPart of the ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it.EardrumWhat are the three bones in the middle ear?Hammer, Anvil, and StirrupChanges the sound vibrations into a form transmittable to the brainInner EarCoiled tube in the ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to soundCochleaInside the cochlea, contain sense receptors for sound.Basilar MembraneTiny cells covering the basilar membrane that, when bent by vibrations entering the cochlea, transmit neural messages to the brainHair CellsNumber of wave cycles that occur in a secondFrequencyCharacteristic that makes sound seem "high" or "low"PitchWave patterns that help in distinguishing loud and soft soundsAmplitudeRange between the strongest and weakest sounds that can be heard.DecibelsDifferent areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies - Provides explanation for the sensing of high-frequency soundsPlace Theory of HearingEntire basilar membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to a sound - Explains what happens when low-frequency sounds are encounteredFrequency Theory of HearingFormed by semicircular canalsVestibular SystemThree tube-like structures of the inner ear containing fluid that sloshes through them when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement to the brain.Semicircular CanalsTiny, motion-sensitive crystals in the semicircular canals - Senses forward, backward, or up-and-down motion as well as the pull of gravityOtolithsSense of smell is sparked when the molecules of a substance enter the nasal passagesOlfactionReceptor neurons of the noseOlfactory CellsChemicals secreted into the environment - Produce a reaction in other membranes of the same speciesPheromonesinvolves receptor cells that respond to four basic stimulus qualities.GustationWhat are the 4 basic stimulus qualities of taste:- Sweet - Sour - Salty - Bitter ("Umami" - involves food stimuli that contains amino acids)The receptor cells are located in roughly __________ taste buds.10,000Highly sensitive to tasteSupertastersInsensitive to tasteNontastersWhat are the skin senses:- Touch - Pressure - Temperature - PainT/F Susceptibility to pain is different from person to personTrueExposure to one sensation evokes an additional one.SynesthesiaBrain collects the information from the individual sensory systems - Integrates and coordinates the informationMultimodal PerceptionSeries of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholesGestalt Laws of OrganizationPerception guided by: - Higher-level knowledge - Experience - Expectations - MotivationTop-Down ProcessingProgression of recognizing and processing information from: - Individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the wholeBottom-Up ProcessingAbility to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance.Depth PerceptionDifference in the image seen by the left eye and the right eyeBinocular DisparityPermits humans to obtain a sense of depth and distance with just one eye.Monocular CuesChange in position of an object on the retina, caused by movement of your body relative to the objectMotion ParallaxFor two objects of the same size, the object that makes a smaller image on the retina is farther awayRelative SizeTexture provides information about distance; details of distant things are less distinctTexture GradientObjects in the distance appear to converge.Linear PerspectivePhysical objects are unvarying and consistent even though sensory input about them may vary - Allows to view objects as having an unchanging size, shape, color, and brightness - Even if the image on our retina changesPerceptual ConstancyPerception that a stationary object is moving - Occurs when different areas of the retina are quickly stimulatedApparent MovementPhysical Stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception - Cultural differences are reflected in depth perceptionVisual IllusionsPerception of messages about which we have no awareness - Referred to as "priming" by social psychologistsSubliminal PerceptionExamples of Subliminal Perception:- Written word - Sound - SmellPerception that does not involve our known sensesExtrasensory PerceptionWhy do psychologists reject the existence of ESP?There is no sound documentation of the phenomenon