Which of the following events has increased the impact of
humans on the environment?
I. advances in technology
II. reduced human population growth
III. use of tools for hunting

a. I only
b. I and II
c. II and III
d. I and III
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Which statement regarding a global environmental indicator is
NOT correct?
a. Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been rising
quite steadily since the Industrial Revolution.
b. World grain production has increased fairly steadily since 1950,
but worldwide production of grain per capita has decreased
dramatically over the same period.
c. For the past 130 years, average global surface temperatures
have shown an overall increase that seems likely to continue.
d. World population is expected to be between 8 billion and 10
Environmental metrics such as the ecological footprint are most
informative when they are considered along with other
environmental indicators. Which indicator, when considered in
conjunction with the ecological footprint, would provide the most
information about environmental impact?
a. biological diversity
b. food production
c. human population
d. CO2 concentration
A species of bat nearly went extinct due to the destruction of its
forest habitat. However, conservationists preserved a small
remnant population of the species in a large forested reserve. The
population grew and it appeared that the species would rebound
when a disease suddenly wiped out the entire population. What is
the likely primary reason for why this occurred?
I. the low genetic diversity of the population
II. the reduced ecosystem diversity of the forest
III. greater contact with humans, who passed on the disease
a. I only
b. II only
c. III only
d. I and II
The fraction of the global human population living in developed
nations is currently 17 percent. If each person in the developed
world consumes on average 100 kg of meat per year, how much
meat will be consumed in the developed world in 1 year?
a. 102 billion kg
b. 130 billion kg
c. 500 billion kg
630 billion kg
Which statement about atoms and molecules is correct? a. The mass number of an element is always less than its atomic number. b. Isotopes are the result of varying numbers of neutrons in atoms of the same element. c. Ionic bonds involve electrons while covalent bonds involve protons. d. Protons and electrons have roughly the same mass.BWhich does NOT demonstrate the law of conservation of matter? a. CH4 + 2O2 -> CO2 + 2H2O b. NaOH + HCI -> NaCl + H2O c. 2NO2 + H2O -> HNO3 + HNO2 d. PbO + C -> 2Pb + CO2DPure water has a pH of 7 because a. its surface tension equally attracts acids and bases. b. its polarity results in a molecule with a positive and a negative end. c. its capillary action attracts it to the surfaces of solid substances. d. its H+ concentration is equal to its OH- concentration.DWhich is NOT a type of organic biological molecule? a. lipids b. carbohydrates c. salts d. nucleic acidsCA wooden log that weighs 1.00 kg is placed in a fireplace. Once lit, it is allowed to burn until there are only traces of ash, weighing 0.04 kg, left. Which best describes the flow of energy? a. The potential energy of the wooden log was converted into the kinetic energy of heat and light. b. The kinetic energy of the wooden log was converted into 0.04 kg of ash. c. The potential energy of the wooden log was converted into 1.00 J of heat. d. The burning of the 1.00 kg wooden log produced 0.96 kg of gases and 0.04 kg of ash.ASarah is currently spending $100 per month on electricity. She pays $0.20 per kWh. Her space heater is responsible for 10 percent of her electricity consumption. How many kilowatt-hours does her space heater use in a month? Assume a month is 30 days. a. 0.07 kWh b. 2 kWh c. 20 kWh d. 50 kWhDIf the average adult woman consumes approximately 2,000 kcal per day, how long would she need to run in order to utilize 25 percent of her caloric intake, given that the energy requirement for running is 42,000 J per minute? Recall that 1 kcal = 4184 joules. a. 200 minutes b. 50 minutes c. 5 minutes d. 0.05 minutesBThe National Hurricane Center studies the origins and intensities of hurricanes over the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and it attempts to forecast their tracks, predict where they will make landfall, and assess what damage will result. This systems analysis involves a. changes within a closed system. b. inputs and outputs within a closed system. c. inputs from a closed system and outputs in an open system. d. inputs, outputs, and changes within an open system.DBased on current carbon emissions, which is the best interpretation of the data? a. The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is in steady state. b. The output of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is greater than the input into the atmosphere. c. The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration appears to be decreasing. d. The input of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is greater than the output from the atmosphere.DWhich represents a system in steady state? I. The birth of chameleons on the island of Madagascar equals their death rate. II. Evaporation from a lake is greater than precipitation and runoff flowing into the lake. III. The steady flow of the Colorado River results in more erosion than deposition of rock particles. a. I only b. II only c. III only d. I and IIAWhich statement about the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan is NOT correct? a. Human and natural systems interact because feedback loops lead to adaptations and changes in both systems. b. Improvements in waste treatment facilities and restrictions on agricultural chemicals will reduce the nutrients and toxins in the water that reaches the Everglades. c. Adaptive management will allow for the modification of strategies as changes occur in this complex system. d. The Florida Everglades is a closed system that includes positive and negative feedback loops and is regulated as such.DImpacts of fracking include I. contamination of ground water. II. increased use of coal. III. lower natural gas prices. a. I only b. I and II c. II and III d. I and IIIDWhich is an abiotic component? a. an eagle b. a rock c. a tree d. a humanBWhich is NOT true about ecosystems? a. They include biotic components. b. They can be a wide range of sizes. c. They include no human components. d. Many interactions among species occur in them.CEach of the following is an example of how humans havenegatively affected the environment EXCEPT a. hunting large mammals. b. conversion of arid land to agricultural use. c. the use of fire to create the Great Plains. d. slash-and-burn forest clearing.CCommon global-scale environmental indicators include all of thenfollowing EXCEPT a. atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. b. human population. c. natural resource depletion. d. pollution in a local stream.DHow many hectares of land is a 500-acre park? (1 acre = 0.40 ha) a. 200 ha b. 250 ha c. 500 ha d. 750 haAIn 2015, 640,000 ha of the Amazon rainforest were cleared. Approximately how many hectares is that each hour? a. 1.2 ha b. 29 ha c. 73 ha d. 178 haCA person's ecological footprint is a. the land that a person lives on. b. the amount of carbon dioxide a person contributes to climate change. c. the land required to produce a person's food. d. the land needed to support all of a person's activities.DHow does paper consumption in developed and developing countries compare? a. Developing countries consume slightly more paper. b. Developed countries consume slightly more paper. c. Developing and developed countries consume about the same amount of paper. d. Developing countries consume much more paper.AThe first step in the scientific process is a. collecting data b. observations and questions. c. forming a hypothesis. d. forming a theory.BTwo new devices for measuring lead contamination in water are testedfor accuracy. Scientists test each device with seven samples of waterknown to contain 400 ppb of lead. Their data is shown in the table.Concentration is in parts per billion. Device 1: 415, 417, 416, 417, 415, 416, 416 Device 2: 398, 401, 400, 402, 398, 400, 399 The data from device 1 is a. accurate, but not precise. b. precise, but not accurate. c. both accurate and precise. d. neither accurate nor precise.BTwo new devices for measuring lead contamination in water are testedfor accuracy. Scientists test each device with seven samples of waterknown to contain 400 ppb of lead. Their data is shown in the table.Concentration is in parts per billion. Device 1: 415, 417, 416, 417, 415, 416, 416 Device 2: 398, 401, 400, 402, 398, 400, 399 Assuming the devices were used correctly, and assuming we wantto choose a device that accurately reflects the true concentrationof lead in the water samples, which conclusion does the data support? a. Device 1 is superior to device 2 because it is more precise. b. Device 2 is superior to device 1 because it is more precise. c. Device 1 is superior to device 2 because it is more accurate. d. Device 2 is superior to device 1 because it is more accurate.DChallenges in the study of environmental science include all ofthe following EXCEPT a. dangers of studying natural systems. b. lack of baseline data. c. subjectivity of environmental impacts. d. complexity of natural systems.AA control group is a. a group with the same conditions as the experimental group. b. a group with conditions found in nature. c. a group with a randomly assigned population. d. a group with the same conditions as the experimental group except for the study variable.DThe measured concentration of in the atmosphere is an example of a. a sample of air from over the Antarctic. b. an environmental indicator. c. replicate sampling. d. how to study seasonal variation in Earth's temperatures.BUse Figure 2.3 to calculate the approximate percentage change inworld grain production per person between 1950 and 2000. a. 10 percent b. 20 percent c. 30 percent d. 40 percentBIf two atoms of an element are isotopes, then they have a different a. number of protons. b. number of neutrons. c. number of electrons. d. atomic number.BThe chemical bond that forms from the attraction of sodium ionsand chlorine atoms in table salt (NaCl) is called a. a covalent bond. b. a polar bond. c. a hydrogen bond. d. an ionic bond.DWhich is NOT a property of water that allows it to support life? a. surface tension b. capillary action c. solvent ability d. high viscosityDWhich has the highest pH? a. bleach b. cola beverage c. seawater d. acid rainAWhich is an organic compound? a. CH4 b. NH3 C. NaCl d. CO2AWhich is NOT a macromolecule? a. carbohydrates b. nucleic acids c. organelles d. proteinsCIf a solar photovoltaic panel produces 1,000 watts of electricalenergy and is active for 12 hours each day, how many kWh ofelectricity will be produced in a week? a. 63 kWh b. 12 kWh c. 84 kWh d. 70 kWhCA car traveling down the highway best represents a. kinetic energy. b. electromagnetic radiation. c. potential energy. d. chemical energy.AThe concept of energy efficiency is used to quantify a. the first law of thermodynamics. b. the second law of thermodynamics. c. conservation of matter. d. energy quality.BA terminal lake like Mono Lake is an example of a. a closed system .b. an open system with only inputs. c. an open system with only outputs. d. an open system with both inputs and outputs.D5. Which of the following will be most likely to return to steady state after a disturbance? a. a system with mostly positive feedback loops b. a system with mostly negative feedback loops c. a system with the same number of positive and negative feedback loops d. an open system with many inputs and outputsD6. Entropy is a. the amount of heat in a system. b. the lowest level of energy quality. c. the ease with which an energy source can be used for work d. the randomness of a system.DWhich list is in the correct order of atmospheric layers startingfrom Earth's surface? a. exosphere, troposphere, mesosphere, stratosphere,thermosphere b. mesosphere, stratosphere, thermosphere, exosphere,troposphere c. thermosphere, troposphere, stratosphere, exosphere,mesosphere d. troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere,exosphereDWhich contributes to the unequal warming of Earth? I. variation in the angle of sunlight that reaches Earth II. variation in the amount of surface area over which the Sun'srays are distributed III. variation in the amount of sunlight reflected from clouds a. I only b. I and II c. II and III d. III onlyBWhich has the highest albedo? a. soil b. snow c. water d. pavementBSummer in the Northern Hemisphere is warmer primarily because of I. increased atmospheric absorption of solar radiation. II. the tilt of Earth's axis. III. reduced albedo. a. I only b. I and II c. II only d. II and IIICWhich atmospheric layer contains the protective ozone layer? a. exosphere b. stratosphere c. thermosphere d. troposphereB