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Sir Richard Arkwright

Invented water frame at almost the same time as the spinning jenny was invented

Jeremy Bentham

Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest food for the greatest number. Wrote Principles of Morals and Legislation

Edmund Cartwright

Inventor of the modern power loom


Agitation against poor laws-working class sicontent

Combination acts

1799 and 1800- made trade union illegal

The Communist Manifesto

Pamphlet written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles- basis of socialism

Corn Laws

1815 tarigg on imported grain to protect domestic procedures. Never worked well

Henry Cort

Refined pig iron-puddling furnace- heavy rolling mills

Benjamin Disraeli

British conservative- extended vote to all middle class male workers, needed to broaden aristocratic voter base.

Friderich Engles

Condition of Working Class in England- society's problems caused mt capitalism and competion. Colleague of Karl Marx

Factory Act of 1833

Created factory workday for children btw. 9-13 to 8 hours a day. Not applicable to home. Outlawed child labor under 9- factory owners estb. schools. Destroyed family unit

Charles Fourier

French social theorist- critizied capitalism- wanted socialist utopia and emancipation of women. Theory of Four Movements

James Hargreaves

About 1750 invented spinning jenny


New inventions, cotton and iron-changed small businesses beyond all recongition

John Kay

Inventor of flying shuttle (1733)

Laissez-faire Capitalism

Minimal government interference in the economic affairs. Adam Smith and Francois Quesnay

Karl Marx

German- father of socialism- emancipation of women- Communist Manifesto

Thomas Newcomen

1705- invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient

Robert Owen

Scottich spoke out about hiring children. Created mills in New Harmony

Henry Palmerston

Hawkish English Foreign Ministerduring revolutions of 1848

A People's Charter

Draft of reform Bill which called for universal suffrage payment of members of Parliament and annual elections- 6main points

Poor Law

1834, Gave some aid to the poor, but not very helpful against unemployment. Very favorable fo employers

First Reform Bill

1832, Modified the old political system by easing voting qualifications. Abolished some smaller boroughs

Second Reform Bill

1867, Conservatives and Liberals trying to gain votes. Disraeli's Conservatives extended the vote to almost 1 million more voters


Political party in Britian controlled by aristocracy

Utopian Socialism

Ideal society based on socialist ideals- Louis Blanc and Charles Fourier

James Watt

Added a condenser to Newcomens steam engineto make it more efficent. Led to steam becoming a viable source of power.


British party more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests

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