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Chapter 8, 10, &11
Terms in this set (69)
What are chromosomes?
Tightly coiled DNA molecules.
Water is a polar molecule because...
Different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges.
The surface area in an important factor in limiting cell growth because...
The cell may become too large to take in enough food & to remove enough wastes.
In a cell , proteins are made on the....
Plant cells have a large membrane- bound space in which water, waste products, and nutrients can be stored. This space is called the...
Osmosis is a type of...
A cell will swell when it is placed in a...
Unlike passive transport, active transport...
When electrons of a chlorophyll molecule are raised to a higher energy level,....
They enter the electron transport chain.
The source of oxegen produced during photosynthesis is...
NADPH is important in photosynthesis because it...
Carries high- energy electrons needed to produce organic molecules.
During he third stage of photosynthesis, sugars are produced from..
Carbon atoms from carbon dioxide in the air & hydrogen atoms from NADPH.
During photosynthesis, the series of reactions that create the complex carbohydrates needed for energy & growth is called...
The calvin cycle.
Water is an end product in...
The electron transport chain.
C6H12O6+ADP+P>6CO2+ Molecule A
Refer to the equation above. The process summarized by the equation begins in the cytoplasm of a cell & ends in the ...
Many autotrophs obtain the energy they need for metabolism through...
Has a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner membrane.
In plants, this contains a lot of cellulose, a polysaccharide.
One of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis.
The region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis.
The material that makes up both mitotic & interphase chromosomes; a complex of proteins & DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation & transcription can occur.
One of the pair of chromosmes that determine the sex of an individual.
Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Chromosome that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure & that pair during meiosis.
The chromosomes of the cell, usually displayed as systematized arrangement of chromosome pair in decending order of size.
An organism or cell having double the basic haploid number of chromosomes.
A single set of chromosomes.
Fission into two organisims approximately equal in size.
The usual method of cell division, characterized by the resolving of the chromatin of the nucleus into a thread like form, which condenses into chromosomes, each of which separates logitudinally into two parts, one part of each chromosome being retained in each of two new cells resulting from the original cell.
Reproduction occurring without the union of male & female gametes. Budding, & Fission
Part of the process of gamete formation, consisting of chromosome conjugation and two cell divisions, in the course of which the diploid chromosome number becomes reduced to the haploid.
A mature sexual reproductive cell, as a sperm or egg, that unites with another cell to form a new organism.
The period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions.
The division of the cytoplasm that usually follows mitotic or meiotic division of the nucleus.
The first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down the strands of chromatin form into chromosomes.
One of a network of achromatic filaments that extend inward from the poles of a dividing cell, forming a spindle - shaped figure.
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle.
The stage of mitosis or meiosis following metaphase in which the daughter chromosomes move away from each other to opposite ends of the cell.
The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes.
A plate that develops at midpoint between the two groups of chromosomes in a dividing cell & that is involved in forming the wall between the new daughter cells.
Adenine matches with what?...
Guanine matches with what?...
Prokaryotic cells go through what, because they have no nucleus...
What does the cell do in interphase stage?
What are the steps in interphase?
G2-2nd phase growth organelles
What are the phases in Mitosis in order?
Prophase-Starts cell division
Metaphase-Chromosomes line equator
Telophase-Cell is separated
What happens in Cytokinesis?
It is when the cytoplasm & nucleus divide on active site.
How does cytokinesis work in plant cells?
Forms a cell plate because they use it to divide the cell.
How does cytokinesis work in animal cells?
They dont have a cell wall so the use a cleavage furrow. Which pinches in the center of the cell& divides the cell into two.
Binary fission in prokaryotic cells results in two what kind of cells?
It results in two daughter cells.
What is the monomer of DNA?
How many chromosomes do people have?
What are the three things mitosis does?
What does meiosis do?
Who & what did Linus Pauling do?
He was famous in the 1920s&30s & had brilliiant work that surrrounded proteins constructed of alot of amino acids. Leading scientist
What did Fredrick Griffith do?
Griffith did work on streptococus pneumoniae(causes nemonia) Injected mice with R-strain & S-strain to see what happened. Boiling denatures proteins.
What are the bonds that are purines & double ringed?
Adenine & Guanine.
What are the bonds that have single rings & are Pyrimidines?
Thymine, Cytosine &RNA.
What did Avery do?
He explained Griffiths work(transformation). When r & s-strain were combined it changed them.
He figured out that protein couldnt be the hereditary molecule because it was denatured.
What did Chargaff do ?
He found out the base pairing rules& credit for finding it.
What did Hershey & Chase do?
They worked with bacteria called T-4 phoge (bacteriophoge)
What does bacteriophoge do?
It is a virus that infects bacteria.
What did watson & crick do?
Paulings son worked with them.They made the structure of DNA with coat hangers& they figured out the structure & how it worked.
What did Rosalin franklin do?
was a x-ray crystalographer & her picture helped Watson& Crick figure out there was a helix in DNA. & died @ 38 because of radioactivity.
What is not a form of ribonucleic acid,(RNA)?
During transcription, the genetic information is rewritten as a molecule of..
All organisms have a genetic code made of..
In a cell, the equipment for translation is located in the..
Why is gene regulation necessary in living organisms?
To avoid wasting energy & resources on producing substances that arnt needed or already available.
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