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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Chapter 13 Reformation and Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century
Test #1 Textbook terms
Terms in this set (39)
Christian (Northern Renaissance) Humanism
A philosophy characterized by a call for a return to simpler forms of religious piety and a rejection of the excessive ritualism of the Middle Ages. Through education of classical antiquity, they believed that they could instill a true inner piety or an inward religious feeling that would bring about a reform of the church and society.
(1466-1536) Dutch. Most influential of all the Christian Humanists and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed through thre spreading of education.; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
(1478-1535) English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of Utopia, in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first lay chancellor of England, he was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church as he tried to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
Idea that high Church Officials, in order to increase revenues, would take over multiple church offices and dioceses. Led to neglect and abuse.
(1483-1543) German theologian, writer of the 95 theses, and leader of the Reformation. His opposition to the wealth and corruption of the papacy and his belief that salvation would be granted on the basis of faith alone rather than by works caused his excommunication from the Catholic Church (1521). Furthermore, he condemned indulgences. He confirmed the Augsburg Confession in 1530, effectively establishing the Lutheran Church.
The act by which a person is made deserving of salvation.
The Peasants' War
It was a popular revolt that took place in Europe during 1524-1525. It consisted of a series of both economic and religious revolts in which peasants, townsfolk and nobles all participated. At its height in the spring and summer of 1525, the conflict, which occurred mostly in the area of what is now modern Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, involved an estimated 300,000 peasant rebels. After the revolt, and estimated100,000 were dead. It was Europe's largest and most widespread uprising prior during the Middle Ages. Luther condemned this revolt, needing the support of the Noblemen against the Catholics.
Zwingli(Swiss)was ordained a priest, his sermons caused unrest, city hall held a debate, but eventually allowed him to continue speaking [took Luther seriously about his theological ideas]. Brought Protestantism to Switzerland, but was cut up to pieces and burned.
The Marburg Colloquy
was a meeting at Marburg Castle in Germany which attempted to solve a dispute between Martin Luther and Zwingli over the symbolic or spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper. It did not succeed in its goal.
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, complete separation of church and state, and democratic church organization. Wanted to return literally to the practices and spirit of early Christians.
Appointed as archbishop of the new church by King Henry, he annulled the king's previous marriage and in 1533 Henry and Anne Boleyn successfully married.
(1485-1540) Became King Henry VII's close advisor following Cardinal Wolsey's dismissal. He and his contemporary THomas Cranmer convinced the king to break from Rome and made the Church of England increasingly more Protestant.
result of the disagreement between Henry VIII and the Pope, created the Church of England or Anglican Church which was separate from the Catholic Church, still left little room for religious freedom
Anabaptist belief that end of the world was at hand and Anabaptists would usher in the kingdom of God with Munster as the New Jerusalem
King Henry VIII
(r. 1509-1547) King of England, unhappily married to Catherine of Aragon. He yearned for a son to inherit the throne, that of which his wife could not provide. Broke off with the Roman Church in order to annul his marriage to his wife and later married Anne Boleyn. Created the Anglican Church, the Church of England.
(also known as "Bloody ...)" was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Spain. She had been raised a Catholic and wanted to make England a Catholic kingdom again. She was also called "Bloody ..." because she burned 300 people at the stake. The people that were burned protested against her. Eventually executed
(1509-1564) The Frenchman was influenced by Luther and converted religions and became a highly influential Protestant leader. His "The Institutes of the Christian Religion" (1535) which expressed his view on Christian teachings as faith oriented. Coined the idea of predestination. He was the most determined of all the protestant reformers. Three tests to indicate possible salvation: an open profession of faith, a "decent and godly life", and participation in the sacraments of baptism and communion.
A theory by John Calvin which stated that God had ordained every man, woman, and child to salvation or damnation, even before the creation of the world. Therefore, no matter what one did in life it would not affect God's plan.
16th Century. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholic authorities undertook an enormous refor effort within their own church. To some extent their efforts represented a reaction to Protestant success. Roman Catholic authorities sought to define points of doctrine so as to clarify the differences between the Roman and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church.
Saint Teresa of Avila
- a nun of the carmelite order. she exemplified mysticism and experienced mystical visions that she claimed resulted in the ecstatic union of her soul with god. believed that mystical experience should lead to active life of service
A religious order known as the Society of Jesus, created to strengthen support of the Church during the Counter-Reformation. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534, these "soldiers of the Counter-Reformation" were committed to doing good deeds in order to achieve salvation.
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
The Council of Trent
An assembly of high church officials summoned by the Catholic Church to clarify doctrine and address reform in response to the challenges raised by the Protestant Reformation.
A group of public figures in France who placed politics before religion and believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of civil war.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Queen Elizabeth I
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England. She was savvy and never let on how smart she was. She acted sort of a middle ground.
A group of Anglicans in England who wanted to purify their church of Catholic ways
The Spanish Armada
One of the largest military fleets in the history of warfare which was sent to attack England in 1588. The smaller English fleet was able to defeat the armada by using its ease of maneuverability and ended Spain's domination of the Atlantic Ocean and made England the power.
Son and successor of Henry VIII. He was sickly and only lived until he was at 14 or 15.
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Philip II of Spain
The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation by persecuted protestants in his region and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.
War between Charles V and Protestant princes. Ended by the Peace of Augsburg in 1555
4 Wars between 1521 and 1544 between France and the Hapsburg's France tried to keep Germany divided, which played an important role in retarding unification of the German states. Charles V was victorious over the league in 1547, but Lutheranism had spread across central Europe
a secretary in Nuremberg who had the first city to convert to Lutheranism
Edict of Worms
When Charles V exiled or outlawed Luther from The Holy Roman Empire or any of it's other lands. It also deemed him to be a heretic.
The debate at which Martin Luther and John Eck debated. Luther challenged the infallibility of the pope and the inerrancy of church councils, appealing to the sovereign authority of Scripture alone. he burned all his bridges to the old church when he defended the teachings of John Huss.
French King who fought with Charles V over territorial disputes, igniting the 4 Hapsburg-Valois Wars
Pope Paul IV
Established the Index of Prohibited Books, which was a list of books, including Luther, Calvin and Erasmus's works, that catholic's were not to read. Considered the first true pope of the catholic counter-reformation.
What empire fell in August of 410 AD? Who defeated this empire and sacked the city?
How did the Renaissance humanists differ from medieval thinkers?
Where did the Capetian dynasty rule?
What did Michelangelo feel summarized the noblest of creations worthy of art?
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