Pharm Fall 2022 TEST ONE

Cytochrome P450 InHIBitors
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Terms in this set (27)
Potency:Potency: Relative dose of two drugs—fentanyl 0.01mg vs morphine 1mg IV. Amount of concentration to reach a level of effectEfficacy:same response, equally efficacious - Efficacy: fentanyl 0.01 mg vs morphine 1 mgDose response—generally, usually increased effect with increased doseIdiosyncrasy—occurs when an unusual effect of a drug occurs regardless of dose giveImmune reactions—hyper-reactivity due to formation of antibodies; ex: heparin induced thrombocytopenia type 2. Prothrombotic disorder resulting from immune reaction to PF-4—heparin complex after initial reaction, even a heparin flush can cause reactionSynergistic effect: two drugs interact to produce an effect greater than any sum of each. EX: gentamicin plus cefazolin for gram positive bacteria. EX benzodiazepine plus opioid hypnotic effects. 1+1 = 3Additive effect: second drug acting with the first drug will produce a predicable additive effect 1+1 = 2 EX: sevo with nitrous oxide during general anestheticInteractions between Anesthesia Drugs: Hypnosis, analgesia, nociception *Interactions between intravenous drugs; or IV drugs plus inhaled anesthetic is usually synergistic. Inhaled anesthetic plus inhaled anesthetic is typically additivePartial agonists: Binds to receptor but doesn't fully activate the pharmacological effect. EX: BuprenorphineHyperreactive: Refers to patients who an unusually low dose of drugs produces expected pharmacologic effectsHyporeactive: Refers to patients who require exceptionally large doses of drug to evoke expected pharmacologic effects.Tolerance: Hypo-reactivity acquired from chronic exposure to a drug Cross Tolerance—develops between drugs of differences classes that produce similar pharmacologic effects (example-alcohol and inhaled anesthetics; will require higher MAC concentrations to keep patients asleep)Tachyphylaxis: Tolerance that develops acutely within only a few doses of drug (example may see with thiopental, ephedrine)Cellular Tolerance: Most important factor in developing tolerance to drugs is neuronal adaptation, but also includes enzyme induction, depletion of neurotransmitters by sustained stimulation.Therapeutic Index (TI): LD50/ED50 This is the difference between efficacy and toxicity levels, a measure of drug safety.Longer 1/2 lifeDistribution: Where it goes to once it is in the body (one compartment model and *two compartment model), volume of distribution