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AP US Chapter 9: The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776-1790

AP US history studyguide
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disestablish
to separate an official state church from its connection with the government
emancipation
setting free from servitude or slavery
chattel
an article of personal or movable property; hence a term applied to slaves, since they were considered the personal property of their owners
abolitionist
an advocate of the end of slavery
ratification
the confirmation or validation of an act (such as a constitution) by authoritative approval
speculators (speculation)
those who buy property, goods, or financial instruments not primarily for use but in anticipation of profitable resale after a general rise in value
annex
to make a smaller territory or political unit part of a larger one
requisition
a demand for something issued on the basis of public authority
foreclosure
depriving someone of the right to redeem mortgaged property because the legal payments on the loan have not been kept up
quorum
the minimum number of persons who must be present in a group before it can conduct valid business
anarchy
the theory that formal government is unnecessary and wrong in principle; the term is also used generally for lawlessness or antigovernmental disorder
bicameral, unicameral
referring to a legislative body with two houses (bicameral) or one (unicameral)
Among the important changes brought about by the American Revolution was
the increasing separation of church and state
A major new political innovation that emerged in the Revolutionary era was
the idea of a written constitutuion drafted by a convention and ratified by direct vote of the people
Despite the Revolutions emphasis on human rights and equality, the founding fathers failed to abolish slavery because
of their political fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity
The ideal of "republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that
women had a special responsibility to cultivate the civic virtues of republicanism in their children
In the new state constitutions written after the Revolution, the most powerful branch of government was
a legislative branch
One way that American independence actually harmed the nations economic fortunes was by
cutting off American trade with the British empire
Attempts to establish strong governments in post-Revolutionary America were seriously hindered by
the revolutionary ideology that preached natural rights and suspicion of all governmental authority
The primary political obstacle to the formation of the first American government under the Articles of Confederation was
it had no power to regulate commerce or collect taxes from the sovereign states
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided that
after sufficient population growth, western territories could be organized and then join the union as states
Shays Rebellion contributed to the movement for a new constitution by
raising the fear of anarchy and disorder among wealthy conservatives
Besides George Washington, the most influential figures in the constitutional convention included
Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton
The "Great Compromise" in the constitutional convention provided that
there would be representation by population in the house of representaives but equal representation of all states in the senate
Antifederalists generally found their greatest support among
the poorer debtors and farmers
The crucial federalists successes in the fight for ratification occurred in the states of
Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York
Protestant Episcopal
new name for the Anglican church after it was disestablished and de-anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere
Republican Motherhood
the idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate civic virtue in their children
Consitutional Convention
a type of special assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts , for drawing up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law
Articles of Confederation
The first constitutional government of the united states
Old Northwest
the territory north of the ohio and east of the mississippi governed by the acts of 1785 and 1797
Townships
one-square mile areas, thirty six of which composed a township, with one area set aside for the support of schools
Territory
the status of a western area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established an organized government but before it became a state
Shays' Rebellion
a failed revolt in 1786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of mobocracy
Large State Plan
the plan proposed by Virginia (Randolph) at the constitutional convention for a bicameral legislature with representation based on population
Small State Plan
the plan proposed by new jeresy (william patterson) for a unicameral legislature with equal representation of states regardless of size aand population
3/5 Compromise
the compromise between north and south that resulted in each slave being counted as 60 percent of a free person for purposes of representation
Antifederalists
the opponents of the constitution who argued against creating such a strong central government
The Federalist Papers
a masterly series of pro-constitution articles printed in new york by Jay, Madison, and Hamiltion
President
the offical under the new constitution who would be commander in cheif of the armed forces, appoint judges and other officals, and have the power to veto legislation
Bill of Rights
a list of guarantees that federalists promised to add to the constitution in order to win ratification
Virginia statue for religious freedom
legislation passed by an alliance of jefferson and the baptists that disestablished the anglican church
Articles of confederation
document of 1781 that was put out of buisness by the constitution
Northwest ordinance of 1787
legislation that provided for the orderly transformation of the western territories into states
Dey of algiers
north african leader who took advantage of the weakness of the articles of confederation to attack american shipping
Daniel Shays
war veteran who led poor farmers in a revolt that failed but had far reaching consequences
George Washington
unanimously elected chairman of the secret convention of demi-gods
James Madison
father of the constitution and author of Federalist No. 10
Federalists
wealthy conservatives devoted to republicanism who engineered a nonviolent political transformation
Antifederalists
group that failed to block the central government they feared but did not force the promise of a bill of rights
Patrick Henry
virginia antigederalist leader who thought the constitution spelled the end of liberty and equality
Alexander Hamilton
young new yorker who argued eloquently for the constitution even though he favored an even stronger central government
John Jay
frustrated foreign affairs secretary under the articles; one of the three authors of The Federalist
Massachusetts
first of key states where federalists won by a narrow margin over the opposition of antideferalist Sam Adams
New York
the only state to allow a direct vote on the Constitution