43 terms

The Heritage of the World Chapter 20

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Terms in this set (...)

nationalism
the belief that the people who share an ethnic identity should also be recognized as having a right to a government and political identity of their own
nationhood
a term whose meaning was disputed amont nationalists
liberal
the word which entered European a nd American vocabulary during the nineteenth century and originally referred to those who sought to establish a political framework of legal equality, religious toleration, and freedom of the press
conservatism
the form of political thought that, in mid-nineteenth-century Europe, promoted legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches
Burke
the English thinker who is widely considered to be the founder of conservatism
Hegel
the German conservative thinker
Metternich
the Austrian prince who epitomized conservatism and seemed to exercise chief control over the forces of European reaction
Frederick William III
the Prussian monarch who reformed the government, creating a new Council of State which was respnsible to him alone and establishing eight provincial estates dominated by Junkers
Burschenschaften
the student associations founded by young German nationalists
Carlsbad Decrees
the decrees issued by Germany which dissolved the Burschenschtaften
Corn Law (1815)
the law passed by Parliament to maintain high prices for domestically produced grain
Peterloo (1819)
the massacre of eleven people by the British militia
Six Acts
the acts passed by Parliament which forbade large unauthorized public meetings, raised the fines for seditious libel, speeded up the trials of political agitators, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited the training of armed groups, and allowed local officials to search homes in certain counties
Louis XVIII
the French Bourbon constitutional monarch who wrote his own Charter
The Charter
the constitution written by Louis XVIII which provided for a herditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature
Concert of Europe
the arrangement which involved postwar conferences among the major European powers to resolve mutual foreign policy issues
Alexander I
the Russian tsar who suggested that the Quadruple Alliance agree to uphold the borders and the existing governments of all European countries
Ferdinand VII
the Bourbon Spanish monarch who dissolved the Cortes and ruled alone
Protocol of Troppau
the declaration of the rights of stable governents to intervene to restore order in countries threatened by revolution; endorsed by members of the Holy Alliance
Canning
the British foreign minister who sought to prevent the extension of Europe to Spain's colonies in Latin America
Greek Revolution
the revolt that occurred in the Mediterranean in 1821, raising "the Eastern Question"
1821
year of the Greek Revolution
"the Eastern Question"
term for the question, What should the European powers do about the Ottoman inability to assure political and administrative stability in its possessions in and around the Mediterranean?
Serbia
the country which sought independence from the Ottoman Empire, and eventually came under the protection of Russia
Haiti
the French colony which achieved independence at the turn of the eighteenth century due to the influence of the French Revolution; proved that African slaves could lead a revolt against white masters
Toussaint L'Ouverture
the leader of the ex-slaves in Haiti
Dessalines
the Haitian military leader who continued to resist France
Creole
term for a person of European, usually Spanish, descent born in the Americas
Jose de San Martin
the Latin American general who captured Santiago in Chile and became Protector of Peru
Bernardo O'Higgins
the Chilean independence leader who became a supreme dictator
Simon Bolivar
the Latin American general who liberated Venezuela and became its president
Augustin de Iturbide
the former loyalist general who declared Mexico independent of Spain in 1821
Dom Pedro
the Brazilian regent who became emperor of an independent Brazil
Decembrist Revolt
the 1825 rebellion in Russia in which a Moscow regiment refused to swear allegiance to Tsar Nicholas I
Official Nationality
the program embraced by Nicholas I which promoted "orthodoxy, authocracy, and nationalism," led by the Russian Orthodox Church
Charles X
the French king who had the Chamber of Deputies indemnify aristocrats who had lost their lands in the revolution and enacted a law which severely punished sacrilege
Four Ordinances
the laws issued by Charles X which staged what amounted to a royal coup d'etat
Louis Philippe
the duke d'Orleans who became king after Charles X abdicated, ending Bourbon rule in france
Belgian independence
the result of William I of Holland's failed attempt to defeat Belgium
Great Reform Bill
the law that reformed Parliament
1832
year when the Great Reform Bill was passed
Catholic Emancipation Act
the act which allowed Roman Catholics to beome members of Parliament
"rotten boroughs"
the boroughs with few voters, which were replaced with representatives for the previously unrepresented districts and cities