BIO 320 Lecture 2

Water, ions, and small molecules make up __% of a cell
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Proteins are make up of __, __, __, and __carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfurDNA is made up of __, __, __, and __carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorousSugars are made up of __, __, and __carbon, hydrogen, oxygenWhile __ bonds rely on sharing of electrons, __ bonds do not share and have more interactions to maintain strength.covalent, noncovalent__ __ are noncovalent bonds that play a key role in the stability of DNAhydrogen bonds__ __ are how salts stay together and help maintain the pH of a cellionic bonds__ __ __ interactions play a key role in proteins and small changes may completely alter the functionalityvan der WaalsMonomers become polymers through many reactions, but one that happens with all macromolecules except lipids is a __ reactiondehydrationRather than a dehydration reaction, lipids use __ bonds to adhere to one anotherhydrophobicMultiple noncovalent bonds can confer binding __ through the subtle shifting and recognization of other proteins.specificityThe bond that holds an oxygen and hydrogen atom in a molecule of water is a __ bond while the bond that holds two molecules of water together is a __ bondcovalent, hydrogenThe bonds that hold together proteins are called __ bondspeptideThe bonds that hold together sugars are called __ bondsglycosidicThe bonds that hold together nucleic acids are called __ bondsphosphodiesterThe four components of an amino acid are a carbon center with __, __, __, and __ as its substituentshydrogen, r group, amine, carboxylic acidIn an amino acid, the N-terminus is the side with the __ while the C-terminus is the side with the __.amine group, carboxylic acidTrue or False: In an amino acid sequence, the N-terminus is listed first and ends with the C-terminusTrue__ is an amino acid that has the ability to make disulfide bondscysteine__ is an amino acid that is incredibly small and its R group is a hydrogenglycine__ is an amino acid that has a unique structure and causes bends in 3-D shapeprolineIn the folds of proteins, __ is the most commonly found amino acidglycineIn the bends of a protein, __ is the most commonly found amino acidprolineThe three types of amino acids are __, __, and __hydrophobic, hydrophilic, specializedHydrophilic amino acids can be either __ or __acidic, basicCommon modifications of amino acids cause increased __, change in __, and/or change in __stability, function, solubilityThe three parts of a nucleic acid are the __ base, __ group, and __ sugarnitrogenous, phosphate, pentoseThe difference between a nucleotide and a nucleoside is that a nucleoside does not have a __ groupphosphatePhospholipids are __ molecules meaning one part of them is water-loving and another part of them is water-hating.amphipathicThe most abundant lipid in the human body is the __phospholipid__ are solutions that maintain pHbuffersThe most prevalent buffer in the human body is __ because it helps maintain red blood cellsbicarbonateA common buffer used in the human body is __ acid due to where the buffer will maintain the pHphosphoric acidCellular processes in which electrons are lost are called __ and processes where electrons are gained are called __.oxidation, reductionRedox reactions in the human body are used to transfer __energyAn __ chemical reaction can proceed if it is coupled to an energetically __ reactionunfavorable, favorableThe most common favorable reaction in the human body is the synthesis of __ATP__ reactions release energy into the environment while __ reactions require energy from the environmentexergonic, endergonic__ lower the amount of free energy required for reactionscatalysts__ is used to fuel many cell processesATP