BIO 320 Lecture 3

Proteins are the __ molecules of the cell and carry out __ encoded by genes
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A __ __ involves several proteins coming together to accomplish tasks such as transcription.molecular machineTrue or False: The folding and unfolding of proteins is irreversible.FalseAll proteins have a __ state in which they are at their most stable formnativeThe folding of proteins in biological systems is promoted by __chaperonesThe two types of chaperones are: __ __ and __molecular chaperones, chaperoninA major chaperone in all organisms is __ which is heat shock protein 70hsp 70Proteins can be modified in many ways, but all modifications alter a protein's __, __, or __activity, life span, cell localizationThe six types of modifications that proteins can undergo are:hydroxylation, methylation, carboxylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, glycosylationProtein degradation occurs via the __-mediated pathwayubiquitinProteins are designed to bind to a range of molecules or __ligands__ are proteins that exhibit precise ligand-binding specificityantibodies__ are proteins that are highly efficient and specialized catalystsenzymesAn enzyme's __ site binds substrate and carries out catalysisactive__ is the term for the maximum velocity in an enzymatic reactionVmax__ is the term to describe the affinity in an enzymatic reactionKmProteins that are __ together are more efficient and therefore __ than proteins that are not held togethertethered, fasterThere are two types of motor proteins: __ and __linear, rotaryLinear motor proteins travel along a __ path within a celldiscreteRotary motor proteins exhibit a __ like motion and are involved with __ synthesiscarousel, ATP__ is a molecular motor protein that is closely associated with actinmyosinProtein function can be regulated through the __/__ of varying sites.activation, deactivation__ transitions are the result of something going from active to inactiveallosteric__ is when something is stored inactively, then once it is in a particular environment, it becomes activecompartmentalization__ activation is when a protein is stored inactively, and it is cleaved to become activeproteolyticWhen something is phosphorylated, it is __ and when something is dephosphorylated, it is __activated, deactivatedThe protein __ will usually activate other proteins and the protein __ will usually deactivate other proteinskinase, phosphataseA protein must be __ to determine its structure and mechanism of actionpurifiedThe first step in a purification of a protein is __centrifugationElectrophoresis separates molecules according to their __:__ ratiocharge, mass__-__ gel will linearize the protein to compare them but in the process denatures the protein. It mainly separates proteins based on __SDS, PAGE, massTwo-dimensional electrophoresis separates molecules according to their __ and their __charge, mass__ __ chromatography is the separation of proteins by sizegel filtration__ __ chromatography is the separation of proteins by chargeion exchange__ chromatography is the separation of proteins by specific binding to another moleculeaffinityHighly specific enzymes and antibody __ can detect individual proteinsassays__ __ is a procedure that uses labeled antibodies to detect specific antigens in a mixture of proteins separated according to their molecular weightwestern blotting__ __ experiments track pathways of proteins using radioactive labellingpulse chase__-__-__ mass spectrometry measures the mass of proteins and peptidestime of flightTrue or False: In a time-of-flight mass spec, you can identify every protein that is in a sampleTrueMolecular mass of proteins and peptides can be determined by electrospray ionization __-__ mass spectrometryion trap__ __ is used to determine protein structure and visualize what proteins really look likex-ray crystallography__ is the global analysis of protein expressionproteomics__ are used to study multiple proteins at one timeassays__ __ and __ __ are used to identify the proteins in a complex biological sampleliquid chromatography, mass spectroscopy__-__ __ and LC-MS/MS can be used to identify many of the proteins in organellesdensity gradient centrifugation