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Ch 29- Vitals
Terms in this set (62)
What are the 4 vital signs?
Temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure
What can vital signs signal?
-changes in normal body function
-life threatening events
How should vital signs be taken?
With the person lying or sitting down (at rest)
What should be reported immediately?
-any vital sign changed from the previous measurement
-vital signs above the normal range
-vital signs below the normal range
Blood pressure (BP)
The amount of force exerted against the walls of an artery by the blood
The balance between the amount of heat produced + the amount lost by the body
Slow heart rate (less than 60 BPM)
Fast heart rate (more than 100 BPM)
Relaxation of the heart
The pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest
With a fever
Elevated body temperature
High blood pressure
(systole equal to or higher than 140 mmHg)
(diastole equal to or higher than 90 mmHg)
Low blood pressure
(systole equal to or lower than 90 mmHg)
(diastole equal to or lower than 60 mmHg)
The beat of the heart felt at an artery as a wave of blood passes through the artery
Radial rate subtracted from apical rate (apical rate - radial rate)
The number of heartbeats/pulses felt in 1 min
Breathing air into + out of the lungs
Contraction of the heart
The pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts
What is considered a vital sign by some agencies?
What are the 5 temperature sites?
Mouth, temporal artery (forehead), tympanic membrane (ear), axilla (underarm), rectum
What are the types of thermometers used?
-standard electronic thermometers
-disposable oral thermometers
-temperature sensitive tape
How quickly do tympanic membrane thermometers measure temperature?
How quickly do temporal artery thermometers measure temperature?
How are glass thermometers color coded?
Blue = oral/axillary
Red = rectal
Rectal thermometers have _________ tips
Oral and axillary thermometers have ______ tips (2 types)
Long + slender or pear-shaped
What is the normal temperature range for the oral site?
97.6-99.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the normal temperature range for the rectal site?
98.6-100.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the normal temperature range for the axillary site?
96.6-98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the normal temperature for the tympanic membrane site?
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit
What is the normal temperature for the temporal artery site?
99.6 degrees Fahrenheit
Which temperature site is not used on infants + children younger than 5?
How long should you leave glass thermometers in? (3 answers)
Rectal = at least 2 minutes
Oral = 2-3 min
Axillary = 5-10 min
What should you use to rinse + read a glass thermometer?
In regards to temperature, what do the nurse + care plan tell you?
-when to take temperature
-what site to use
-what thermometer to use
How long should a person wait for an oral temperature after smoking or exercising?
What are the 9 pulse sites?
Temporal (forehead), carotid (side of neck), brachial (middle elbow), radial (wrist), femoral (groin), popliteal (behind knee), posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis/pedal (foot), apical (heart)
Which pulse site is used most often?
Which pulse site is used in CPR and other emergencies?
What do you use for an apical pulse?
What is an irregular pulse?
Pulse skips beats and/or is unevenly spaced
What is an apical-radial pulse?
Taking the apical and radial pulse at the same time (2 ppl needed)
When do you use a doppler ultrasound stethoscope (DUS)?
When the pedal pulse can't be felt
The apical and radial pulse should be...
What is a normal pulse rate range for adults?
What is considered a full respiration?
1 inhalation + 1 exhalation
What is a normal respiration rate range for adults?
Slow respiratory rate (less than 12 BPM)
Fast respiratory rate (more than 20 BPM)
What should you use to take a pulse?
Your first 2 or 3 fingertips (NOT thumb)
When should respirations be taken?
After taking the pulse
True or False: the person should know you are taking their respiration
What is the normal range of systolic BP?
90 mmHg or higher- lower than 120 mmHg
What is the normal range of diastolic BP?
60 mmHg or higher - lower than 80 mmHg
What is used to measure BP?
Stethoscope + sphygmomanometer
What are the 4 types of sphymomanometers?
Aneroid, mercury, electronic, wrist monitor
Where is BP measured
Over the brachial artery on the bare upper arm
At what rate should you deflate the BP cuff?
2-4 mm per second
The apical pulse is taken on people who...
-have heart disease
-are taking drugs that affect the heart
-have irregular heart rhythms
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