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Science Ch. 15: Evolution
Covering vocabulary from Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, the evidence of evolution, and the development of the evolutionary theory.
Terms in this set (49)
Darwin's ship upon which he travelled predominately around South America and the Galapagos Islands as a naturalist collecting biological and geological specimens. A five-year voyage.
The process of directed breeding to produce offspring with desired traits. Selective breeding. Done often with pigeons and dogs.
Competitors struggle for existence. Those who are better equipped would survive while those less equipped would die off. It selects the individuals that are best adapted for survival and reproduction, and acts on an organism's phenotype and changes allelic frequencies.
The mechanism by which evolution takes place
variation, heritability, overproduction, reproductive advantage
4 basic principles explaining how traits of a population can change over time. (Natural selection)
Individuals within a population differ from one another.
variations are inherited from parents.
Populations produce more offspring than can survive, resulting in competition.
Some variations allow the organism that possesses them to have more offspring than the organism that does not possess them.
Cumulative changes in groups of organisms through time. NOT synonymous with natural selection.
On the Origin of Species
Darwin's book demonstrating how evolution might happen. Also provides evidence of evolution.
theory of evolution
States that all organisms on Earth have descended from a common ancestor.
The remains of an organism or its activities.
Supplies some of the most significant evidence of evolutionary change via bone. Can show how ancient species are similar to current species, or how some species have remained unchanged. Helps determine the ancestry of organisms and patterns of evolution.
Bones containing features shared by different species. Provide detailed patterns of evolutionary change for the ancestors of many modern animals.
Newly evolved features, such as feathers, that do not appear in the fossils of common ancestors.
More primitive features, such as teeth and tails, that do appear in ancestral forms.
Anatomically similar structures inherited from a common ancestor. These limbs move animals in different ways, but they share similar construction.
A kind of homologous structure that is a reduced form of functional structures in other organisms (ie. the human appendix).
Features used for the same purpose with similar construction but ARE NOT inherited from a common ancestor (ie. the wings of a bird and the wings of a bug).
An early, pre-birth state of an organism's development. Many vertebrates exhibit homologous structures during certain phases of development that eventually become varying structures in adults. All have a head, tail, and pharyngeal pouches (which can develop into gills, ears, jaws and throats).
Molecules in a species with a recent common ancestor should share certain ancient amino acid sequences. The more closely related the species are, the greater number of sequences will be shared. Organisms with closely related morphological features have more closely related molecular features.
The study of the distribution of plants and animals around the world. Evidence is linked with climate and geological forces (ie. plate tectonics).
A trait shaped by natural selection to increase the survival or reproductive success of an organism.
A measure of the relative contributions an individual trait makes to the next generation. Often measured as the number of reproductively viable offspring that an organism produces in the next generation.
A morphological adaptation that enables a species to blend in with their environment.
A species evolves to resemble another, often more dangerous species. The better the mimicry, the more difficult it is for a predator to tell the difference between the two species.
An unavoidable consequence of an adaptation. Human babies are born at an earlier developmental stage and are more helpless as a result of upright posture and larger brains.
Alternate forms of a character trait that can be inherited.
When allelic frequencies remain constant, a population is in genetic equilibrium and will not undergo evolution. Evolution will only occur if the allelic frequencies are acted upon by forces that cause change.
no genetic drift, no gene flow, no mutation, random mating, no natural selection
The 5 conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle.
Any chance change in allelic frequencies in a population. Its affects are more pronounced in smaller populations.
An example of genetic drift. When a small sample of the population settles in a separate location from the rest of population, resulting in a random subset of the original population. Alleles that were previously uncommon are now more common in this population.
An example of genetic drift in which a population dwindles and then rebounds. The rebound population is genetically similar to the previous population at its lowest level.
The random movement between populations (migration) that increases genetic variation within a population and reduces the differences between populations.
Organisms mate with individuals in a close proximity, promoting inbreeding and changes in allelic proportions favoring individuals that are homozygous for particular traits.
A random change in genetic material. The cumulative effects of this in a population might cause a change in allelic frequencies.
The most common form of natural selection. It operates to eliminate extreme expressions of a trait when the average expression leads to higher fitness.
If an extreme version of a trait makes an organism more fit, this type of natural selection occurs, increasing the expression of the extreme version of a trait in the population. This occurs to Galapagos finches.
A type of natural selection that splits a population into two groups, tending to remove individuals with average traits but retaining individuals expressing extreme traits at both ends of a continuum.
A type of natural selection in which change in frequency of a trait is based on the ability to attract a mate (ie. with peacocks). This often operates in populations where males and females differ significantly in appearance.
prezygotic isolating mechanisms
A type of reproductive isolation that prevents gene flow among populations before fertilization occurs. This prevents reproduction by making fertilization unlikely. Prevent genotypes from entering a population's gene pool through geographic, ecological, behavioral, or other differences (ie. different mating songs).
postzygotic isolating mechanisms
A type of reproductive isolation that operates after fertilization has occurred to ensure that the resulting hybrid remains infertile. When fertilization has occurred but a hybrid offspring cannot develop or reproduce. This prevents offspring survival or reproduction (ie. a liger).
A physical barrier that divides one population into 2 or more populations. The separate populations will eventually contain organisms that will no longer be able to breed successfully with one another.
A species evolves into a new species without a physical barrier. The ancestor species and the new species live alongside one another during the speciation process. This occurs fairly frequently in plants, especially through polypoidy. Afterwards the plant is no longer able to interbreed with the main population.
AKA divergent evolution. When one species gives rise to many species in response to the creation of new habitat or another ecological opportunity. This often follows large-scale extinctions.
Species that have a close relationship with other species -> the evolution of one species affects the evolution of other species. Mutualism (when two species benefit one another) is one form of this.
When unrelated species evolve similar traits although they are geographically separated. This occurs in environments that are geographically far apart but have similar ecology and climate.
A rate of speciation that proceeds in small, gradual steps.
The abrupt transitions that can be found in the fossil record. Rapid spurts of genetic change cause species to diverge quickly; these periods punctuate much longer periods when the species exhibit little change.
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