Chapter 5: Fossil Energy
What percentage of the world's primary energy comes from fossil fuels?
coal, oil, and natural gas
What are the three conventional fossil fuels?
sunlight energy captured and stored by plants and plankton through photosynthesis
What is the ultimate origin of the energy in fossil fuels?
dead organic matter escapes decay, sedimentation, geothermal chemical processing
How did coal form?
precursor to coal
What is peat?
anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat
What are the various forms of coal?
anthracite and bituminous
Which forms of coal are high quality?
lignite and peat
Which forms of coal are low quality?
in the sea (zooplankton)
How did oil and natural gas form?
precursor to oil
What is kerogen?
geological formations with rocks bent upward
What are anticlines?
What is petroleum? What are it's components?
What is the composition of natural gas?
What is the main refinery product of crude oil? What is the name of the main refining process?
coal is carbon, oil+natural gas is hydrocarbons
What is the main difference in the chemical composition between coal and oil+natural gas?
burning natural gas at the well, and it is not good
What is flaring? Is it a good practice?
carbon-dioxide and water, no.
What are the two important combustion products of fossil fuel burning? Are they toxic?
carbon dioxide is the dominant greenhouse gas
Are any of these two combustion products greenhouse gases? If both are greenhouse gases which is the dominant greenhouse gas and which one is responsible for the recently observed climate change?
Order the fossil fuels according to their carbon-dioxide emissions. What is the explanation for the difference in carbon-dioxide emissions of these fossil fuels?
burn fuel somewhere else, internal is
What is the difference between external combustion engines and internal combustion engines?
conitnuous is continously and intermittent is when you need it
What is the difference between continuous combustion engines and intermittent combustion engines?
In a typical gasoline powered car, what fraction of the fuel energy is available at the wheels?
(hybrid car) energy that is lost can be recaptured to power battery
What is regenerative-braking?
uses a gasoline engine solely to generate electricity which if the prime mover
What are series hybrids? What is the prime mover in a series hybrid?
Gasoline engine is the prime source of motive energy assisted on occasion by electric
What are parallel hybrids? What is the prime mover in a parallel hybrid?
produce a lot of power for a given weight, but they are not energy efficient
What is the advantage of gas turbine engines? What is their disadvantage?
good thing. 60% efficiency
What are combined-cycle power plants?
Resources is talking about the total amount of minerals in the ground. Reserves is talking about minerals that we are certain exist, based on geological studies.
What is the difference between the terms "resource" and "reserve?" Which one is fixed and which one changes with time?
Which country in the world has the highest coal reserves?
Does the energy content of coal change drastically from one grade to another or does it stay roughly the same?
How does the global distribution of petroleum compare with the global distribution of coal? Which is, relatively, more uniformly distributed?
Which country has the highest known conventional oil reserves? Does the answer change if we include the unconventional oil?
Which country is the largest consumer of oil?
Which country is the largest producer of oil?
domestic was higher than imported up until 2000. after 2000, imported rose over domestic
How does the US domestic production of oil compare with the imported oil?
a rock that contains significant kerogen
What are oil shales?
oil leaked into sands with volatile component evaporated
What are tar sands?
How are oil shales and tar sands distributed worldwide?
rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid made of water, sand, and chemicals.
What is hydro-fracking?
methane trapped in ice-like crystal at the bottom of oceans
What are methane clathrates?
reserve/production ratio model, exponential growth model, and Hubbert's peak model
What are the three models dealing with resource depletion?
production rate is a constant and there is no growth/decay in the production
What is the assumption involved in the reserve/production model?
growth rate is constant
What is the assumption involved in the exponential growth model?
growth is initially exponential but peaks when approximately half of oil reserves have been used up
What is the assumption involved in the Hubbert Peak Model?
collapse of industrial society
What are the consequences of reaching Hubbert's peak
a tax would be levied on fuels based on the amount of carbon dioxide a given fuel puts into the atmosphere
What is the Carbon-Tax Scheme?
a governing body sets limits on carbon emissions, then issues allowances to individual emitters that permit a certain amount of carbon emissions
What is the Cap-and-Trade Scheme?
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