-The Neolithic Revolution (farming/agriculture), was transformative bc the ppl began to stay for harvest, fewer nomadic natives, more natives were settled communities= facilitates development of social institutions & division of labor; lead to more complex institutions
-Mayan= they were the most civilized civilization with their own calendar, language, numbers, elaborate cities, jewelry, and clothes etc- controlled a lot of land;gave rise to complex and large native societies
-The Tenochtitlan, with a population close to 250,000, the capital of Aztec Empire; present Mexico City
-The Mississipian's: mound builders, society of cities and states, 11th-13th century; the city of Cahokia=a commercial and government center whose residents established trade routes throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys; a fortified community with between 10,000-30,000 (Eastern Woodlands Indians)
-In South America, the Incas dominated the region along the Andes.
-Central America: location of one of the most successful cultures - the Cahokia; extensive trade networks
-By 15th Century?=Western Hemisphere (native) population comparable to Europe;
Several hundred distinct language groups; Several civilizations already risen & fallen
-Spain is rich/pwr and ally with pope, so trying to stop Protestantism bc against Roman Catholic Church
-English King, Henry 8th(1509-1547), wrote article against ML, Pope awards him, but when Henry asks for divorce and pope says no, breaks away from RC=English Reformation-> pass Active Supremacy, creates New Church of England w/ King as head of it; most of ppl enthusiastic
-his daughter take over, Bloody Mary (1553-1558): mom was Spain so made England RC again, kills all who aren't RC
-other daughter take over: Queen Elizabeth 1(1558-1603)= back to Church of England; freedom of belief; then all Protestants who had left bc BloodyMary came back to England, began trouble, Puritans (very loyal Protestants) get elected & want reforms in Church; encouraged to explore/colonize to fix the social and economic problems in England
-Piracy of Spanish ships=Spain and England energies intensify
-England sends ppl to Roanoake but failure
-Queen of Scots, beheaded 1587: done to prevent Catholicism from reestablishing itself in England
-war with Spain begins 1588
-King James 1(1603-1625)(protestant/ decreased Parliament's authority), defeats Spain= last push of confidence for England to colonize Americas;Jamestown and Plymouth colonized during his reign
-King Charles I (1625-1649): protestant & decreased Parliament's authority; Mass. Bay Colony colonized during his reign
-Conflict between Parliament(Puritans) and Crown: Parliament wanted more authority, but the Crown (Charles I) didn't want to give any up=Civil War (1642-1649): Oliver Cromwell VS Charles I; Turbulence in England encouraged migration overseas
-mad Powhatan Indians bc English were demanding too much food during a drought=winter of 1609-10 "Starving Time." (the 3rd winter)
-early 1610= 80-90% settlers had died due to starvation and disease. (Professor said only SIXTEEN original colonists were left).
-Sir Thomas Gates, the newly named governor, found Jamestown in shambles= abandoned the settlement. But next day, Gates and remaining settlers return bc incoming fleet & new governor, Lord Delaware
-Tobacco: "gold" ;developed a commercially-centered agricultural economy--> Many people began to WANT to come to the New World.
-1618 the HEADRIGHT SYSTEM was introduced
-1622 governor of Jamestown is offended by Chief Powhatan and raids a Powhatan village, massacring the town/BURNING crops (which the Powhatans were so generous with); In retaliation the Powhatan leader, massacres Jamestown. England sends back-up (by 1624 ~12,000 people had died from war, starvation, and disease). In 1644, English defeat the Powhatans and a treaty is signed.
-The Carolinas;established when Charles II awarded 8 ppl land rights to make colony for purpose to thwart Spanish expansion North of Florida
-The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (1669)
establish a feudal society with hereditary nobility, serfs, and slaves; to attract settlers proprietors offered religious toleration, elected assembly, and headright system (50 acres of land for those who paid his or another's passage);
slave holders can have "absolute power and authority"
-Carolina was an offshoot of the numerous "sugar islands" in the Caribbean, specifically Barbados, which affected the type of economy they had=built their economy on slave labor first with slaves from Africa, then as they moved to America, Native Americans;Subsequently shipping them off to other colonies in the West Indies.
-This differed from the market economy of the Chesapeake Bay and New England colonies, which were built from the exports of commercial crops such as tobacco and indigo.
-Carolina first economy=cattle raising and trade w/ indians, discovery of rice allowed the Carolinas to become part of the wealthy elite and an "epicenter of mainland slavery"
-The Middle Colonies: New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey; First claimed by Dutch, called New Netherland; English claimed in 1660s → called New York after the Duke of York (James II);Freedom of religion is more common due to great diversity. Farming and the fur trade provided economic means.
-Colonists depended on them for food crop & trade. Even with trade and peace, there were still tensions and fears on both sides (as with Powhatan and John Smith around 1608).
-Colonists continued to push religion onto the natives, forming "Praying Towns". Many native tribes were between the French and British in trade, but as the British pushed for more land, many also took sides.
-In the Pequot war of 1637, Englishmen attacked the village to claim the land for its Holy Experiment. From the native side, in King Phillip's War of 1675, Native Americans drove to push the English to the sea.
-Going into the 18th century, the English Still pushed and were able to take land from both the French and Natives after the 7 Year's War. This led to Pontiac's rebellion over the Ohio RIver Valley and Great Lakes land.
-Peace was attempted by the Proclamation Line, yet settlers such as the Paxton Boys felt more aggression was needed, ending the friendship.