Chapter 24 World History
Terms in this set (365)
The conservative aristocratic monarchies of Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain—known as the _______ ________—had finally defeated France and reaffirmed their determination to hold France in line.
But many other international questions were outstanding, and the allies agreed to meet at the _______ __ _______ to fashion a general peace settlement.
Congress of Vienna
A meeting of the Quadruple Alliance—Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain—and France held in 1814-1815 to fashion a general peace settlement that attempted to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France.
Congress of Vienna
The great challenge for political leaders in 1814 was to construct a settlement that would last and not sow the seeds of another ___.
In one way or another, the new ideas of the social reformers rejected __________, with its stress on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and a strong landowning aristocracy.
The first ______ __ _______ gave France the boundaries it possessed in 1792, which were larger than those of 1789, and France did not have to pay any war reparations.
Peace of Paris
When the four allies of the Quadruple Alliance met together at the Congress of Vienna they also agreed to raise a
number of barriers against renewed French aggression.
The Low Countries—_______ ____ ______—were united under an enlarged Dutch monarchy capable of opposing France more effectively.
Belgium and Holland
Prussia received considerably more ______ along France's eastern border to stand as a "sentinel on the Rhine" against renewed French aggression.
In their moderation toward France, the allies were motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about the
Balance of power
Who is Klemens von Metternich?
Austria's foreign minister.
To the peacemakers, especially to Klemens von Metternich, the balance of power meant an
international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression by any combination of states or, worse, the domination of Europe by any single state.
The Quadruple Alliance members, therefore, did not just sign the treaty and go home. They agreed to meet _____________ to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures to maintain peace in Europe.
This agreement marked the beginning of the European "_______ ______," which lasted long into the nineteenth century.
In 1815, under Metternich's leadership, Austria, Prussia, and Russia embarked on a crusade against the ideas and politics of the ____ __________.
Metternich's policies dominated the entire _______ __________of thirty-eight independent German states, which the Vienna peace settlement had called into being
It was through the German Confederation that Metternich had the repressive _______ _________ issued in 1819.
These Carlsbad decrees required the member states to
root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers, and a permanent committee was established to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.
Born into the landed _______, Metternich zealously defended his class and its privileges.
Like many European conservatives of his time, Metternich believed that liberalism, as embodied in revolutionary America and France, had been responsible for a generation of
war with untold bloodshed and suffering.
He blamed liberal revolutionaries for stirring up the ______ ______, which he believed desired nothing more than peace and quiet.
Because liberals believed that each national group had a right to establish its own independent government, the quest for national self-determination posed a grave threat to the _________ vast Austrian Empire.
Austria was a dynastic state dominated by _______ but containing many other national groups, including Magyars (Hungarians), Czechs, Italians, Poles, Ukrainians, Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Ruthenians, and Romanians.
As a result, the multinational state that Metternich served was both ______ and weak.
Austria was strong because of its
large population and vast territories
Austria was weak because of its
many and potentially dissatisfied nationalities
The principal ideas of liberalism—liberty and equality—were by no means defeated in 1815. (This form of liberalism is often called "________ _______" and should not be confused with modern American liberalism, which usually favors government programs to meet social needs and to regulate the economy.)
A philosophy whose principal ideas were equality and liberty; liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law as well as such individual freedoms as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
First realized successfully in the American Revolution and then achieved in part in the French Revolution, liberalism demanded
representative government and equality before the law
The idea of liberty also meant specific individual freedoms:
freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
In Europe only ______, with Louis XVIII's Constitutional Charter, and Great Britain, with its Parliament and historic rights of English men and women, had realized much of the liberal program in 1815.
Opponents of liberalism especially criticized its economic principles, which called for unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy. This philosophy was popularly known as the doctrine of ________ ______
A doctrine of economic liberalism that believed in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Scottish philosopher _____ _____ posited the idea of a free economy in 1776 in opposition to mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade.
Smith argued that freely competitive private enterprise would give all citizens a fair and equal opportunity to do what they did best and would result in greater ________ for everyone.
In early-nineteenth-century Britain this economic liberalism was embraced most enthusiastically by business groups and thus became a doctrine associated with _________ interests.
Early-nineteenth-century liberals favored representative government, but they generally wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote. In practice this meant limiting the vote to
Inspired by memories of the French Revolution and the young American republic, intellectuals called for universal voting rights, at least for males, and for _________.
Nationalism was a second radical ideology in the years after 1815—an idea destined to have an enormous _______ in the modern world.
The idea that each people had its own genius and its own specific unity, which manifested itself especially in a common language and history, and often led to the desire for an independent political state.
In 1808, in an address to a German audience in French-occupied Berlin, the German philosopher _____ ______ _____called on all Germans "to have that organic unity in which no member regards the fate of another as the fate of a stranger."
Johann Gottlieb Fichte
Fichte and other early advocates of the "national idea" argued that the members of each ethnic group had its own genius and its own cultural ____, which were manifested especially in a common language, history, and territory.
In fact, such cultural unity was more a _______ than a reality as local dialects abounded, historical memory divided the inhabitants of the different states as much as it unified them, and a variety of ethnic groups shared the territory of most states.
Nevertheless, European nationalists sought to make the territory of each people coincide with well-defined boundaries in an independent nation-state. It was this political goal that made nationalism so __________ in central and eastern Europe after 1815
The nationalist vision triumphed in the long run partly because
the development of complex industrial and urban society required better communication between individuals and groups
The development of a standardized national ________ that was spread through mass education created at least a superficial cultural unity.
Nation-states also emerged because those who believed in the new ideology wanted to create
"imagined communities," communities seeking to bind inhabitants around the abstract concept of an all-embracing national identity.
Thus nationalists and leaders brought citizens together with emotionally charged symbols and ceremonies, such as ethnic festivals and flag-waving parades that celebrated the imagined nation of spiritual _____.
Many of the ______ and _____ colonies that gained their independence in the twentieth century are examples of the imagined communities concept.
During the colonial era European powers established a single _______—English, French, or German, for example—as a common language of communication in their respective colonies.
Many of these leaders, such as India's _______ _______ , even lived in Europe and witnessed the creation and promotion of national identities there firsthand.
Between 1815 and 1850 most people who believed in nationalism also believed in either liberalism or radical democratic republicanism. A common _____ in the creativity and nobility of the people was perhaps the single most important reason for the linking of these two concepts.
Liberals and especially democrats saw the ______ as the ultimate source of all good government.
Socialism, the new radical doctrine after 1815, began in
Early French socialists believed in
Socialists also believed that government should regulate ______ ______ or that _______ ______ should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership.
Saint-Simon optimistically proclaimed the tremendous possibilities of industrial development: "The age of gold is before us!" In his view the key to progress was proper social organization that required the "________"—the royal court, the aristocracy, lawyers, churchmen—to give way, once and for all, to the "_____"—the leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists. The doers would carefully plan the economy, guide it forward, and improve conditions for the poor.
Charles Fourier (1772-1837), another influential French thinker, envisaged a socialist _______ of self-sufficient communities.
An early proponent of the total emancipation of women, Fourier also called for the abolition of
marriage, free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom.
In 1848 the thirty-year-old Karl Marx and the twenty-eight-year-old Friedrich Engels published The ________ ________, which became the bible of socialism.
Early French socialists often appealed to the middle class and the state to help the poor. Marx ridiculed such appeals as
Marx argued that middle class interests and those of the industrial working class were inevitably ________ to each other.
In Marx's view one class had always exploited the other, and, with the advent of modern industry, society was split more clearly than ever before: between the
middle class—the bourgeoisie —and the modern working class—the proletariat
The well-educated, prosperous, middle-class groups.
The Marxist term for the modern working class.
Just as the bourgeoisie had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy, Marx predicted that the _______ would conquer the bourgeoisie in a violent revolution.
For Marx, class identity trumped
The __________ ___________ dominated eighteenth-century British society, but that class was neither closed nor rigidly defined.
Basic civil rights were guaranteed, but only about _ percent of the population could vote for representatives to Parliament.
Why was the Reform Bill of 1832 significant?
-First, the bill moved British politics in a democratic direction and allowed the House of Commons to emerge as the all-important legislative body. ---
-Second, the new industrial areas of the country gained representation in the Commons.
-Third, the number of voters increased by about 50 percent.
In 1847 the Tories passed the ___ _____ ___ which limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours.
Ten Hours Act
Tory aristocrats continued to champion legislation regulating factory conditions. They were competing vigorously with the ______ ______ for working-class support.
The people of Ireland did not benefit from this political competition. Long ruled as a conquered people, most of the population was made up of Irish ______ ______ who rented their land from a tiny minority of Church of England Protestants.
Who was Sir Walter Scott?
A novelist who wrote about the living conditions of Irish peasants.
In spite of terrible conditions, Ireland's population continued to increase, caused in part by the extensive cultivation of the ______.
The potato crop failed in 1845, 1846, 1848, and 1851 in Ireland and throughout much of Europe. Blight attacked the young plants, and the tubers rotted. The general result in Europe was
high food prices, suffering, and, frequently, social upheaval.
In Ireland the result was
widespread starvation and mass fever epidemics. Total population losses were staggering. Fully one million emigrants fled the famine between 1845 and 1851, going primarily to the United States and Great Britain.
This tragedy came to be known as
The Great Famine
Louis XVIII's Constitutional Charter of 1814 protected the
economic and social gains made by sections of the middle class and the peasantry in the French Revolution, and it permitted great intellectual and artistic freedom.
The charter was anything but democratic, however. Only a tiny minority of males had the right to vote for the ________ _______who, with the king and his ministers, made the nation's laws.
Although Louis Philippe _______ the Constitutional Charter of 1814 and titled himself merely the "king of the French people," the situation in France remained fundamentally unchanged.
The government's stubborn refusal to consider electoral reform heightened a sense of class injustice among shopkeepers and urban working people, and it eventually touched off a popular revolt in Paris in February 1848. Barricades went up, and Louis Philippe quickly _______.
The revolutionaries were firmly committed to a truly popular and democratic republic so that the common people—the peasants and the workers—could reform society with wise _________.
In practice, building such a republic meant giving the right to vote to every ______ ____, and this was quickly done.
Revolutionary compassion and sympathy for freedom were expressed in the
freeing of all slaves in French colonies, the abolition of the death penalty, and the establishment of national workshops as an alternative to capitalist employment for unemployed Parisian workers.
When the French masses voted for delegates to the new Constituent Assembly in late April 1848, they elected a majority of moderate __________ who opposed any further radical social measures.
When the government dissolved the national workshops in Paris, workers rose in a spontaneous and violent ______. Working people fought with courage, but the government had the army and the support of peasant France.
After three terrible "____ ____" and the death or injury of more than ten thousand people, the republican army stood triumphant in a sea of working-class blood and hatred.
The revolution in France thus ended in spectacular ______. The February coalition of the middle and working classes had in four short months become locked in mortal combat.
In place of a generous democratic republic, the Constituent Assembly completed a constitution featuring a strong executive. This allowed ______ ___________, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, to win a landslide victory in the December 1848 election.
President Louis Napoleon at first shared power with a conservative National Assembly. But in 1851 Louis Napoleon ________ the Assembly and seized power in a coup d'état.
A year later he called on the French to make him ________ _______, and 97 percent voted to do so in a national plebiscite.
Louis Napoleon—proclaimed _______ ________ ___—then ruled France until 1870.
Emperor Napoleon III
In 1870, on the eve of a disastrous war with Prussia, Louis Napoleon was still seeking with some success to reconcile a
strong national state with universal male suffrage and an independent National Assembly with real power.
written constitutions, representative government, and greater civil liberties from authoritarian regimes.
Urban workers and students served as the _____ ______, but they were allied with middle-class liberals and peasants.
The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in 1848 in ________, where nationalistic Hungarians demanded national autonomy, full civil liberties, and universal suffrage.
When Viennese students and workers also took to the streets and peasant disorders broke out, the Habsburg emperor ________ _ capitulated and promised reforms and a liberal constitution.
When the monarchy abolished _______, the newly free peasants lost interest in the political and social questions agitating the cities.
In March the Hungarian revolutionary leaders pushed through an extremely liberal, almost democratic, constitution. But the Hungarian revolutionaries also sought to create a unified, centralized Hungarian _____.
To the minority groups that formed half of the population—the Croats, Serbs, and Romanians—such unification was completely _________.
Czech nationalists based in Bohemia and the city of Prague came into conflict with German nationalists. Thus conflicting national aspirations within the Austrian Empire enabled the monarchy to play off one ethnic group ______ the other.
The monarchy's first breakthrough came in June when the army crushed a working-class revolt in Prague. In October the predominantly peasant troops of the regular Austrian army attacked the student and working-class radicals in Vienna and retook the
Thus the determination of Austria's aristocracy and the loyalty of its army were the final ingredients in the triumph of reaction and the defeat of
Thus the determination of Austria's aristocracy and the loyalty of its army were the final ingredients in the triumph of reaction and the defeat of revolution.
When Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his young nephew, Franz Joseph, only ________ had yet to be brought under control.
Another determined conservative, _______ _ __ ______, obligingly lent his iron hand. In June 1849, 130,000 Russian troops poured into Hungary and subdued the country.
Nicholas I of Russia
After Austria, ______ was the largest and most influential German kingdom.
Prior to 1848, the goal of middle-class Prussian liberals had been to
reshape Prussia into a liberal constitutional monarchy, which would transform the German Confederation into a unified nation.
When the artisans and factory workers in Berlin exploded in March 1848 and joined with the middle-class liberals in the struggle against the monarchy, Prussian King _______ ______ __caved in.
Frederick William IV
On March 21, Frederick William IV promised to grant Prussia a
liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state.
A self-appointed committee of liberals from various German states met in Frankfurt in May 1848 and began writing a federal constitution for a unified German state. This National Assembly completed drafting a liberal constitution in March 1849 and elected ____ _______ _______ __ _______emperor of the new German national state.
King Frederick William of Prussia
By early 1849, however, Frederick William had reasserted his royal authority, contemptuously refusing to accept the "crown from the gutter." When Frederick William tried to get the small monarchs of Germany to elect him emperor with authoritarian power, Austria _____.
Supported by Russia, Austria forced Prussia to renounce all its unification schemes in late 1850. The _________ _________ was re-established. Attempts to unite the Germans—first in a liberal national state and then in a conservative Prussian empire—had failed completely.
It became clear to the Russian leaders that they had to embrace the process of _________, defined narrowly as the changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
The changes that enable a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time.
A battleground for the Great Powers after 1494, Italy was reorganized in 1815 at the Congress of Vienna:
-Austria received the rich northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia. -Sardinia and Piedmont fell under the rule of an Italian monarch,
-Tuscany shared north-central Italy with several smaller states.
-The papacy ruled over central Italy and Rome,
- a branch of the Bourbons ruled Naples and Sicily.
What did Metternich call Italy?
A geographical expression
In 1848 revolutionary efforts to form a democratic Italian republic failed, and after he was temporarily driven from Rome during the upheavals of 1848, a frightened Pope Pius IX turned against most modern trends, including
At the same time, Victor Emmanuel, king of independent Sardinia, retained the moderate liberal _________ granted under duress in March 1848.
Sardinia had the good fortune of being led by
Count Camillo Benso di Cavour.
Cavour's national goals were limited and realistic. Until 1859 he sought unity only for the states of ________ and perhaps central Italy in a greatly expanded kingdom of Sardinia.
Cavour worked out a secret diplomatic alliance with ___________ ___ and in July 1858 he goaded Austria into attacking Sardinia.
The combined Franco-Sardinian forces were victorious, but Napoleon III decided on a compromise peace with the __________ in July 1859.
Sardinia would receive only ________, the area around Milan. Cavour resigned in a rage.
While the war against Austria raged in the north, dedicated nationalists in central Italy had risen and driven out their rulers. Nationalist fervor seized the urban masses, and the leaders of the nationalist movement called for fusion with ________.
Cavour returned to power in early 1860, and the people of central Italy voted overwhelmingly to join a greatly enlarged kingdom of Sardinia. Cavour had achieved his original goal of a north ______ state
For superpatriots such as Giuseppe Garibaldi, the job of unification was still only half done. Having led a unit of volunteers to several victories over Austrian troops in 1859, Garibaldi emerged in 1860 as an independent force in Italian _______.
Secretly supported by Cavour, Garibaldi conceived a bold plan to "liberate" the kingdom of the Two _______.
Landing on the shores of Sicily in May 1860, Garibaldi's guerrilla band of a thousand ___ _____ captured the imagination of the Sicilian peasantry, which rose in rebellion
Outwitting the royal army, Garibaldi captured _________, crossed to the mainland, and prepared to attack Rome and the pope.
But Cavour quickly sent Sardinian forces to occupy most of the Papal States (but not Rome) and to intercept Garibaldi. When Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel rode through Naples to cheering crowds, they symbolically sealed the union of ______ ____ _______, of monarch and people.
north and south
The new kingdom of Italy, which did not include ______ until 1866 or Rome until 1870, was a parliamentary monarchy under Victor Emmanuel, neither radical nor democratic.
Only a small minority of Italian males had the ________.
Despite political unity, the propertied classes and the common people were ________. A great social and cultural gap separated the progressive industrializing north from the stagnant agrarian south.
In the aftermath of 1848, the German states, particularly Austria and Prussia, were locked in a political ________, each seeking to block the power of the other within the German Confederation.
At the same time, powerful economic forces were undermining the political status ___.
Modern industry was growing rapidly within the German customs union, or Zollverein, founded in 1834 to stimulate ______.
By 1853 all the German states except ______ had joined the customs union, and a new Germany excluding Austria was becoming an economic reality.
Prussia had emerged from the upheavals of 1848 with a parliament of sorts, which was in the hands of the ______ middle class by 1859.
The national uprising in Italy in 1859, however, convinced Prussia's tough-minded William I that political change and even war with Austria or France was ______.
William I pushed to
raise taxes and increase the defense budget to double the army's size.
The Prussian parliament, reflecting the middle class's desire for a less militaristic society, rejected the military budget in 1862, and the liberals _________ in new elections.
King William then called on _____ ____ ___ _______ to head a new ministry and defy the parliament.
Count Otto von Bismarck
The most important figure in German history between Martin Luther and Adolf Hitler, ____ ___ _______ was above all a master of politics.
When Bismarck took office as chief minister in 1862, he declared that the government would rule without
Bismarck had the Prussian bureaucracy go right on collecting taxes even though the parliament refused to approve the budget, and he reorganized the army. For their part, the voters of Prussia continued to express their ___________ by sending large liberal majorities to the parliament from 1862 to 1866.
In 1866 Bismarck launched the Austro-Prussian War with the intent of expelling ______ from German politics.
The war lasted only seven weeks, and the reorganized Prussian army defeated Austria decisively at the Battle of ________ in Bohemia.
The mainly Protestant states north of the Main River were grouped in the new North German Confederation, led by an expanded Prussia. Each state retained its own local government, but the federal government—William I and Bismarck—controlled the
army and foreign affairs.
Long convinced that the old order should make peace with the liberal middle class and the nationalist movement, Bismarck asked the Prussian parliament to approve after the fact all of the government's "_______" spending between 1862 and 1866.
With German unity in sight, they legalized the government's _______.
The final act in the drama of German unification followed quickly with a patriotic war with _____.
The apparent issue—whether a distant relative of Prussia's William I might become king of Spain—was only a _________ pretext.
As soon as war against France began in 1870, Bismarck had the wholehearted support of the ______ German states.
German forces under Prussian leadership defeated Louis Napoleon's armies at _____ on September 1, 1870.
Three days later French patriots in Paris proclaimed yet another French republic and vowed to continue fighting. But after five months, in January 1871, a starving Paris surrendered, and France __________ Bismarck's harsh peace terms.
By this time the south German states had agreed to join a new German Empire. As in the 1866 constitution, the Prussian king and his ministers had ultimate power in the new German Empire, and the lower house of the legislature was elected by
universal male suffrage.
The new German Empire had become Europe's most __________ state, and most Germans were enormously proud, blissfully imagining themselves the fittest and best of the European species.
The _______ War of 1853 to 1856, arising out of a dispute with France over who should protect certain Christian shrines in the Ottoman Empire, brought crisis.
France and Great Britain, aided by Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire, inflicted a humiliating defeat on ______.
railroads, better armaments, and reorganization of the army if it was to maintain its international position.
Military disaster thus forced the new tsar, Alexander II, and his ministers along the path of rapid social change and general __________.
The first and greatest of the reforms was the
Freeing of the serfs
The emancipated peasants received, on average, about ____ of the land. Yet they had to pay fairly high prices for their land, which was owned collectively by peasant villages.
More successful was reform of the legal system, which established
independent courts and equality before the law.
Education was also liberalized somewhat, and censorship was relaxed but not ________.
Russia's greatest strides toward modernization were ___________ rather than political.
Rapid ________ construction to 1880 enabled agricultural Russia to export grain and thus earn money for further industrialization.
Industrial _______ grew up around Moscow and St. Petersburg, and a class of modern factory workers began to take shape.
In 1881 a small group of terrorists assassinated Alexander II, and the reform era came to an abrupt ___. Political modernization remained frozen until 1905, but economic modernization sped forward in the massive industrial surge of the 1890s.
The key leader was ______ _____, the energetic minister of finance.
Under Witte's leadership the government doubled Russia's railroad network by the end of the century and promoted Russian industry with high protective ______.
By 1903 Russia had established a sphere of influence in Chinese Manchuria and was eyeing northern _____.
When the diplomatic protests of equally imperialistic Japan were ignored, the Japanese launched a surprise attack on Russian forces in ________ in February 1904.
After Japan scored repeated victories, to the amazement of self-confident Europeans, Russia was forced in September 1905 to accept a humiliating _____.
On January 22, 1905, workers protesting for improved working conditions and higher wages were attacked by the tsar's troops outside the Winter Palace. Over one hundred were killed and around three hundred wounded. This event, known as _______ ________, set off a wave of strikes, peasant uprisings, and troop mutinies across Russia.
The tsar, Nicholas II, issued the ________ _________, which granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (DOOmuh; parliament) with real legislative power.
The result of a great general strike in Russia in October 1905, it granted full civil rights and promised a popularly elected Duma (parliament) with real legislative power.
Under the new constitution Nicholas II retained great powers and the Duma had only limited
The middle-class liberals, the _______ group in the newly elected Duma, were badly disappointed, and efforts to cooperate with the tsar's ministers soon broke down.
In 1907 Nicholas II and his reactionary advisers rewrote the electoral law so as to increase greatly the weight of the propertied classes. When elections were held, the tsar could count on a loyal majority in the ____. On the eve of World War I, Russia was partially modernized, a conservative constitutional monarchy with a peasant-based but industrializing economy.
as industry grew, there was also a rapid expansion of already overcrowded and ________ cities.
Except on the outskirts, each town or city was using every scrap of ____ to the full extent.
Chadwick was a follower of radical British philosopher Jeremy Bentham, whose approach to social issues, called ____________, had taught that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the "greatest good for the greatest number."
Chadwick became convinced that disease and death actually caused _______ and that disease could be prevented by cleaning up the urban environment.
Collecting detailed reports from local officials and publishing his findings in 1842, Chadwick correctly believed that the stinking excrement of communal outhouses could be carried off by water through ______ at less than one-twentieth the cost of removing it by hand.
In 1848 Chadwick's report became the basis of Great Britain's first public health law, which created a
national health board and gave cities broad authority to build modern sanitary systems.
Early sanitary reformers were seriously handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease—the belief that
people contract disease when they breathe the bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement.
In the 1840s and 1850s keen observation by doctors and public health officials suggested that contagion was spread through filth and not caused by it, thus weakening the ________ idea.
The breakthrough was the development of the germ theory of disease by ______ ________, a French chemist who began studying fermentation for brewers in 1854.
The idea that disease is caused by the spread of living organisms that can be controlled.
Pasteur found that the growth of living organisms in a beverage could be suppressed by heating it—by __________.
When, in the middle of the 1870s, Robert Koch and his German coworkers developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles, the ___ ______.
Over the next twenty years researchers identified the organisms responsible for disease after disease. These discoveries led to the development of a number of effective _______.
Surgeons also applied the germ theory in _________, sterilizing not only the wound but everything else—hands, instruments, clothing—that entered the operating room.
The achievements of the bacterial revolution coupled with the public health movement saved _______ of lives, particularly after about 1890.
In England, France, and Germany death rates declined dramatically, and the awful death sentences of the past—diphtheria, typhoid, typhus, cholera, yellow fever—became _________ diseases in the industrializing nations.
France took the lead during the rule of ________ ___, who believed that rebuilding much of Paris would provide employment, improve living conditions, and glorify his empire.
In the baron _______ __________, an aggressive, impatient Alsatian whom he placed in charge of Paris, Napoleon III found an authoritarian planner capable of bulldozing both buildings and opposition.
The rebuilding of Paris stimulated modern ________ throughout Europe, particularly after 1870.
The development of mass public ______________ was also of great importance in the improvement of urban living conditions.
In the 1870s many European cities authorized private companies to operate horse-drawn ___________, which had been developed in the United States.
Then in the 1890s countries in North America and Europe adopted another American transit innovation, the
Electric streetcars were
cheaper, faster, more dependable, and more comfortable than their horse-drawn counterparts.
real wages were _______ for the mass of the population, and they continued to do so until 1914. With increased wages, the rigid class structures of Old Regime Europe began to break down
Greater economic rewards for the average person did not eliminate hardship and poverty, however, nor did they significantly narrow the ___ between rich and the poor.
The great gap between rich and poor endured, in part, because
industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified.
Society had not split into two sharply defined opposing classes, as Marx had predicted. Instead, economic specialization created more new social groups than it _________.
The diversity and range within the urban middle class were striking as the twentieth century opened, and it is meaningful to think of a confederation of middle classes loosely united by occupations requiring ______, rather than physical, skill.
As the upper middle class, composed mainly of successful business families, gained in income and progressively lost all traces of radicalism after the trauma of 1848, they were almost irresistibly drawn toward the _________ lifestyle.
Next came the much larger, much less wealthy, and increasingly diversified ________ class. Here one found moderately successful industrialists and merchants, professionals in law and medicine, and mid-level managers of large public and private institutions.
The expansion of industry and technology created a growing demand for experts with specialized knowledge, and the most valuable of the specialties became solid ______________ professions.
At the bottom were independent shopkeepers, small traders, and tiny manufacturers—the
the lower middle class.
Industrialization and urb anization also diversified the lower middle class and expanded the number of
White-collar employees were _____________, but generally they were fiercely committed to the middle class and to the ideal of moving up in society.
The keystones of culture and leisure were
books, music, and travel.
The middle classes were loosely united by a
shared code of expected behavior and morality
This code stressed
hard work, self-discipline, and personal achievement.
About four out of five Europeans belonged to the _______ classes at the turn of the twentieth century.
Many of them were small landowning peasants and hired farm hands. This was especially true in _______ Europe.
In the first place, economic development and increased specialization expanded the
traditional range of working-class skills, earnings, and experiences.
In the second place, skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workers developed
widely divergent lifestyles and cultural values, and their differences contributed to a keen sense of social status and hierarchy within the working classes.
Highly skilled workers, who made up about 15 percent of the working classes, became known as the
The most "aristocratic" of the highly skilled workers were
construction bosses and factory foremen, men who had often risen from the ranks and were fiercely proud of their achievement.
The labor aristocracy also included
members of the traditional highly skilled handicraft trades that had not yet been placed in factories, as well as new kinds of skilled workers such as shipbuilders and railway locomotive engineers.
Thus the labor elite remained in a state of ____ as individuals and whole crafts moved in and out of it.
A large number of the semiskilled were
factory workers who earned good wages and whose relative importance in the labor force was increasing.
Below the semiskilled workers was a larger group of unskilled workers that included
day laborers such as longshoremen, wagon-driving teamsters, and maids. Many of these people had real skills and performed valuable services, but they were unorganized and divided, united only by the common fate of meager earnings.
The same lack of unity characterized street vendors and market people—
self-employed workers who competed savagely with each other and with the established lower middle class shopkeepers.
To make ends meet, many working-class wives had to join the broad ranks of working women in the
The women, sometimes unskilled and nearly always unorganized labor, normally worked at ____ and were paid by the piece. Sweating became a catch-all word denoting meager wages, hard labor, unsanitary and dangerous working conditions, and harsh treatment, often by a middleman who had subcontracted the work.
The urban working classes sought fun and recreation, and they found both. Across the face of Europe _________ remained unquestionably the favorite working class leisure-time activity.
Generally, however, heavy problem drinking declined in the late nineteenth century as drinking became more _______ and social.
The two other leisure-time passions of the working classes were
sports and music halls.
Husbands became wage earners in factories and offices; wives tended to stay ____, manage households, and care for children.
As economic conditions improved, only married women in ____ families tended to work outside the home.
The ideal became _______ _______, the strict division of labor by sex.
This rigid division meant that married women faced great obstacles if they needed or wanted to move into the men's world of paid employment outside the home. Well-paying jobs were off-limits to women, and a woman's wage was almost always ____ than a man's, even for the same work.
Middle-class women lacked legal rights and faced ___________ in education and employment.
Thus organizations founded by middle-class feminists campaigned for legal _______ as well as for access to higher education and professional employment.
In the later nineteenth century middle-class women scored some significant victories, such as the 1882 law giving English married women
full property rights.
Socialist women leaders usually took a different path. They argued that the liberation of working-class women would come only with
the liberation of the entire working class through revolution.
Among the English working classes, for example, the wife generally determined how the family's _____ was spent. All the major domestic decisions, from the children's schooling and religious instruction to the selection of new furniture or a new apartment, were hers.
Husbands and wives were expected to have emotional ties to each other, and mothers were expected to have powerful feelings toward their ________.
Among the working classes, young people often began working or left home when they reached ___________, so they had greater independence in their decisions about who to marry.
Many French marriage manuals of the late 1800s stressed that women had legitimate sexual needs, such as the "right to orgasm." In the more puritanical United States, however, sex manuals recommended sexual __________ for unmarried men and limited sexual activity for married men. Respectable women were thought to experience no sexual pleasure at all from sexual activity, and anything vaguely sexual was to be removed from their surroundings
Same-sex attraction, labeled "homosexuality" for the first time, was identified as a "perversion." Governments seeking to promote a healthy society as a way of building up their national strength increasingly regulated
prostitution, the treatment of venereal disease, and access to birth control in ways that were shaped by class and gender hierarchies.
Masturbation, termed the "______ ______," became a matter of public concern in this era of growing nationalism because doctors and officials worried that it would weaken boys and men, making them incapable of defending the nation or engaging in industrial work.
Medical science also turned its attention to motherhood, and a wave of specialized books on child-rearing and infant hygiene instructed middle-class women on how to be better _______.
Social reformers, some of them women, attempted to instruct working-class women in this new "________ __ ______________," but, often working at a "sweated" trade or caring for boarders within their own homes, poorer women had little time for new mothering practices.
science of motherhood
Women in industrializing countries also began to limit the number of children they bore. This revolutionary reduction in family size, in which the comfortable and well-educated classes took the lead, was founded on the parents' desire to
improve their economic and social position and that of their children.
The working classes probably had more avenues of escape from such tensions than did the middle classes. Unlike their middle-class counterparts who remained economically dependent on their families until a long education was finished or a proper marriage secured, working-class boys and girls went to
work when they reached adolescence.
Earning wages on their own, they could bargain with their parents for
greater independence within the household, or they could leave home to live cheaply as paying lodgers in other working-class homes. Thus the young person from the working classes broke away from the family more easily when emotional ties became oppressive.
A perfect example of the translation of better scientific knowledge into practical human benefits was the work of Louis Pasteur and his followers in biology and the medical sciences. Another was the development of the branch of physics known as _____________, the relationship between heat and mechanical energy.
The triumph of science and technology had at least three significant consequences:
-First,everyday experience and innumerable articles in newspapers and magazines impressed the importance of science on the popular mind. ---
-Second,the philosophical implications of science formulated in the Enlightenment spread to broad sections of the population. Natural processes appeared to be determined by rigid laws, leaving little room for either divine intervention or human will.
-Third, the methods of science acquired unrivaled prestige after 1850.
The most influential of all nineteenth-century evolutionary thinkers was _______ ________.
Darwin came to doubt the general belief in a special divine creation of each species of animal.Instead, he concluded, all life had gradually ________ from a common ancestral origin in an unending "struggle for survival."
Darwin's theory of ____________ is summarized in the title of his work On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection (1859).
Darwin argued that small variations within individuals in one species allowed them to acquire more food and better living conditions and made them more successful in reproducing, thus passing their genetic material to the next generation. When a number of individuals within a species became distinct enough that they could no longer interbreed successfully with others, they became a new ______.
The idea, applied by Charles Darwin, that concluded that all life had gradually evolved from a common origin; as applied by thinkers in many fields, the idea stressed gradual change and continuous adjustment.
Combined with the groundbreaking work in genetics carried out by the Augustinian priest and scientist Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884), Darwin's theory has become one of the fundamental unifying principles of modern ______.
Darwin's theory of natural selection provoked, and continues to provoke, resistance, particularly because he extended the theory to _______. His findings reinforced the teachings of secularists such as Marx, who scornfully dismissed religious belief in favor of agnostic or atheistic materialism.
________ _________(1820-1903), an English philosopher, saw the human race as driven forward to ever-greater specialization and progress by a brutal economic struggle that efficiently determines the "survival of the fittest."
The idea that human society also evolves, and that the stronger will become powerful and prosperous while the weaker will be conquered or remain poor became known as _______ ___________. Powerful nations used this ideology to justify nationalism and expansion, and colonizers to justify imperialism.
The application of the theory of biological evolution to human affairs, it sees the human race as driven to ever-greater specialization and progress by an unending economic struggle that determines the survival of the fittest.
In the late nineteenth century a German author coined the term "____-______" to provide a more scientific-sounding term for hostility toward Jews, describing Jews as a separate "Semitic" race
romanticism was characterized by a belief in
emotional exuberance, unrestrained imagination, and spontaneity in both art and personal life.
One of the greatest and most moving romantic painters in France, ______ _________, was a romantic master of dramatic, colorful scenes that stirred the emotions.
Delacroix was fascinated with remote and exotic subjects. Yet he was also a passionate spokesman for _________.
The first great romantic composer is among the most famous today, ______ ___ __________.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Nowhere was the break with classicism more apparent than
in romanticism's general conception of ______. Classicism was not particularly interested in nature. The romantics, in contrast, were enchanted by nature.
The study of _______ became a romantic passion. History was the key to a universe that was now perceived to be organic and dynamic, not mechanical and static as the Enlightenment thinkers had believed. Historical studies supported the development of national aspirations and encouraged entire peoples to seek in the past their special destinies.
Romanticism found a distinctive voice in poetry. ________ __________ was the towering leader of English romanticism.
In 1798 Wordsworth and his fellow romantic poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge published their _______ ________, which abandoned flowery classical conventions for the language of ordinary speech. Wordsworth described his conception of poetry as the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility."
_______ _______(1802-1885) was France's greatest romantic master in both poetry and prose.
The hero of Hugo's famous __________ ___ ______ ______(1831) is the great cathedral's deformed bell-ringer, a "human gargoyle" overlooking the teeming life of fifteenth-century Paris.
Hunchback of Notre Dame
Like modern anthropologists, romantics turned their attention to peasant life and transcribed the folk songs, tales, and proverbs that the cosmopolitan Enlightenment had disdained. The brothers _____ ___ ______ ______were particularly successful at rescuing German fairy tales from oblivion.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm
In the Slavic lands romantics played a decisive role in converting spoken peasant languages into modern written languages. The greatest of all Russian poets, ________ __________(1799-1837), used his lyric genius to mold the modern literary language of Russia.
Beginning in the 1840s, romanticism gave way to a new artistic genre, _______, which continued to dominate Western culture and style until the 1890s.
Realist writers believed that literature should depict ____ exactly as it is. Forsaking poetry for prose and the personal, emotional viewpoint of the romantics for strict scientific objectivity, the realists simply observed and recorded.
Madame Bovary, by _______ _________(1821-1880), for example, describes the heroine's adulterous affairs and lavish spending as she seeks to escape a dull husband and dull existence in a small provincial village.
Beginning with a dissection of the middle classes, from which most of them sprang, many realists eventually focused on the ______ classes, especially the urban working classes, which had been neglected in literature before this time.
Realists such as the famous French novelist _______ ______(1840-1902) and English novelist ______ _______(1840-1928) were strict determinists. They believed that human beings, like atoms, are components of the physical world and that all human actions are caused by unalterable natural laws: heredity and environment determine human behavior; good and evil are merely social conventions.
Emile Zola,Thomas Hardy
Only on Europe's borders—in _______ ___ ______ _____________________________________ —did people still strive for national unity and independence.
Ireland and Russia, in Austria-Hungary and the Balkans
There were good reasons why ordinary people—the masses of an industrializing, urbanizing society—felt increasing loyalty to their governments in central and western Europe. More people could ____.
By 1914 universal ____ _______ had become the rule rather than the exception. This development had as much psychological as political significance. Ordinary men felt they were becoming "part of the system."
Women also began to demand the right to vote. The women's suffrage movement achieved its first success in the western United States, and by 1913 women could vote in ______ ________.
In Europe, ______ gave the vote to most women in 1914.
Suffragettes had little success elsewhere before 1914, but they prepared the way for getting the vote in many countries immediately after
World War I.
As the right to vote spread, politicians and parties in national parliaments usually represented the people more
The multiparty system prevailing in most countries meant that parliamentary majorities were built on _______ _________ which gave political parties leverage to obtain benefits for their supporters.
The new German Empire was a federal union of _______ and twenty-four smaller states.
Unifying the whole was a strong national government with a chancellor—Bismarck until 1890—and a popularly elected parliament called the _______.
Although Bismarck refused to be bound by a ___________ majority, he pragmatically sought the backing of whichever coalition of political parties would support his policies.
As for ________, Bismarck tried to stop its growth in Germany because he feared its revolutionary language and allegiance to a movement transcending the nation-state.
In 1878 he pushed through a law outlawing the ______ ___________ but he was unable to force socialism out of existence.
Bismarck's essentially conservative nation-state then pioneered social measures designed to win working-class support. In 1883 the Reichstag approved a national ______ _________ _______ that was the first of its kind anywhere.
social security system
Under Kaiser ________ _ (r. 1861-1888), Bismarck had, in effect, managed the domestic and foreign policies of the state.
In 1890 the new emperor, William II (r. 1888-1918), eager to rule in his own right and to earn the workers' support, forced Bismarck to ______.
Following Bismarck's departure, the Reichstag passed new laws to aid workers and to legalize ________ ____ _______. German foreign policy changed most profoundly as well, and mostly for the worse
socialist political activity
Although William II was no more successful than Bismarck in getting workers to renounce socialism, in the years before World War I the Social Democratic party broadened its base and adopted a more ________ tone. German socialists identified increasingly with the German state and concentrated on gradual social and political reform.
Although Napoleon III's reign made some progress in reducing antagonisms between classes, the Franco-Prussian war undid these efforts, and in 1871 France seemed hopelessly _______ once again.
The republicans who proclaimed the Third Republic in Paris refused to admit defeat. They defended Paris with great heroism for weeks, until they were starved into submission by ________ armies in January 1871.
When national elections then sent a large majority of conservatives and monarchists to the National Assembly, France's leaders decided they had no choice but to surrender _______ and ________ to Germany.
The traumatized Parisians exploded in patriotic frustration and proclaimed the ______ ________ in March 1871.
Commune leaders wanted to govern Paris without interference from the conservative French countryside. The _______ _________, led by aging conservative politician Adolphe Thiers, would hear none of it.
The Assembly ordered the French army into Paris and brutally crushed the _______.
Twenty thousand people died in the fighting. As in June 1848, it was Paris against the provinces, French against French. Out of this tragedy France slowly formed a new national ____ before 1914.
The moderate republicans sought to preserve their creation by winning the loyalty of the next generation. ______ ______were fully legalized, and France acquired a colonial empire.
More important, a series of laws between 1879 and 1886 established
free compulsory elementary education for both girls and boys, thereby greatly reducing the role of parochial Catholic schools that had long been hostile to republics and to much of secular life.
In France and throughout the world the general expansion of public _________ served as a critical nation-and nationalism-building tool in the late nineteenth century.
Although the educational reforms of the 1880s disturbed French Catholics, many of them rallied to the republic in the 1890s, and tensions between church and state eased. Unfortunately, the ______ ______changed all that.
In 1894 Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of ______.
In 1898 and 1899 the case split France apart. On one side was the
army, which had manufactured evidence against Dreyfus, joined by anti-Semites and most of the Catholic establishment.
On the other side stood the
civil libertarians and most of the more radical republicans.
This battle, which eventually led to Dreyfus's being declared
_________, revived militant republican feeling against the church.
Between 1901 and 1905 the government severed all ties between the state and the Catholic Church after centuries of close relations. In France only the growing ________ ___________, with its very different but thoroughly secular ideology, stood in opposition to patriotic republican nationalism.
A divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. The Catholic Church sided with the anti-Semites against Dreyfus; after Dreyfus was declared innocent, the French government severed all ties between the state and the church.
At home Britain made more of its citizens feel a part of the nation by passing consecutive voting rights bills that gave solid middle-class males the right to vote in 1832, all middle-class males and the best-paid male workers the right in the ______ Reform Bill of 1867, and finally every adult male through the ____ Reform Bill of 1884.
Moreover, extensive social welfare measures, slow to come to Great Britain, were passed in a spectacular rush between 1906 and 1914. The Liberal Party then substantially raised taxes on the rich as part of the so-called People's Budget to pay for
national health insurance, unemployment benefits, old-age pensions, and a host of other social measures.
On the eve of World War I, however, the unanswered question of Ireland brought Great Britain to the brink of civil war. The terrible Irish famine fueled an Irish revolutionary movement. Thereafter the English slowly granted ___________, but refused to give Ireland self-government.
In 1910 Irish nationalists in the British Parliament supported the Liberals in their battle for the People's Budget. In 1913 they received a ____-___ ___for Ireland in return.
The Irish Catholic majority in the southern counties wanted _____ ___, but the Irish Protestants in the northern counties of Ulster vowed to resist it.
Unable to resolve the conflict as World War I started in August 1914, the British government _________ indefinitely the whole question of Irish home rule.
Following the savage defeat of the Hungarian republic, Hungary was ruled as a conquered territory, and _________ _____ _______and his bureaucracy tried hard to centralize the state and Germanize the language and culture of the different nationalities.
Emperor Franz Joseph
Following its defeat by Prussia in 1866, a weakened Austria was forced to establish the so-called
The empire was divided in ___, and the nationalistic Magyars gained virtual independence for Hungary.
The two states were joined only by a
shared monarch and common ministries for finance, defense, and foreign affairs.
Still, the disintegrating force of competing nationalisms continued unabated, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire was progressively weakened and eventually destroyed by the conflicting national aspirations of its different ethnic groups. It was these ethnic conflicts in the ______, the "powder keg of Europe," that touched off the Great War in 1914.
Beginning in France in 1791, Jews gradually gained their _____ ______, although progress was slow and uneven.
In 1871 the constitution of the new German Empire abolished all restrictions on
Jewish marriage, choice of occupation, place of residence, and property ownership.
Exclusion from government employment and discrimination in social relations remained, however, in
Traditional Jewish occupations, such as court financial agent, village moneylender, and peddler, were undermined by free-market reforms, but careers in business, the professions, and the arts were opening to Jewish _____.
By 1871 a majority of Jews in western and central Europe had improved their economic situations and entered the ______ _______.
Vicious anti-Semitism reappeared after the stock market crash of 1873, beginning in ______ _______.
Drawing on long traditions of religious intolerance, ghetto exclusion, and periodic anti-Jewish riots and expulsions, this hostility also drew on modern ideas about Jews as a ________ race.
Modern anti-Semitism whipped up resentment against Jewish achievement and Jewish "financial control," while fanatics claimed that the Jewish race posed a biological _____ to the German people.
Anti-Semites also created modern political parties. In Austrian Vienna in the early 1890s, Karl Lueger and his "________ ________" won striking electoral victories.
Lueger, the popular mayor of Vienna from 1897 to 1910, combined fierce anti-Semitic rhetoric with municipal ownership of basic services. He appealed especially to the German-speaking _____ ______ _____—and to an unsuccessful young artist named Adolf Hitler.
lower middle class
In response to spreading anti-Semitism, a Jewish journalist named Theodor Herzl turned from German nationalism to advocate Jewish political nationalism, or _______, and the creation of a Jewish state.
The movement toward Jewish political nationhood started by Theodor Herzl.
Before 1914 anti-Semitism was most oppressive in ______ ________, where Jews also suffered from terrible poverty.
In the Russian empire, where there was no Jewish emancipation and 4 million of Europe's 7 million Jewish people lived in 1880, officials used anti-Semitism to channel popular discontent away from the __________.
In 1881-1882 a wave of violent pogroms commenced in southern Russia. The police and the army stood aside for days while peasants assaulted Jews and looted and destroyed their property. Official harassment continued in the following decades, and some Russian Jews turned toward self-emancipation and the vision of a Zionist settlement in the Ottoman province of _________. Large numbers also emigrated to western Europe and the United States.
By 1912 the German Social Democratic Party, which espoused Marxist ideology, had millions of followers and was the Reichstag's _______ party.
Socialist parties also grew in other countries, and Marxist socialist parties were linked together in an ___________ organization.
In 1864 Karl Marx played an important role in founding the
First International of socialists.
The First International collapsed in 1872, but in 1889 socialist leaders came together to form the _______ ___________, which lasted until 1914.
As socialist parties grew and attracted large numbers of members, they looked more and more toward gradual change and steady improvement for the ______ ______ and less and less toward revolution.
As workers gained the right to vote and won real benefits, their attention focused more on _______ than on revolutions.
Workers were also not immune to nationalistic patriotism, even as they loyally voted for socialists. Nor were workers a _______ social group.
Perhaps most important of all, workers' standard of living rose steadily after 1850, and the quality of life improved substantially in urban areas. Thus workers tended to become militantly moderate: they demanded
gains, but they were less likely to take to the barricades in pursuit of them.
In the early stages of industrialization, modern unions were considered subversive bodies and were generally _________ by law.
In Great Britain new unions that formed for skilled workers after 1850 avoided radical politics and concentrated on winning better wages and hours for their members through collective _________ ___ ___________. After 1890 unions for unskilled workers developed in Britain.
bargaining and compromise
German unions were not granted important rights until 1869, and until the anti-socialist law was repealed in 1890 the government frequently harassed them as socialist fronts. But after most legal harassment was eliminated, union membership skyrocketed from only about 270,000 in 1895 to roughly _ million in 1912.
Genuine collective bargaining, long opposed by socialist intellectuals as a "sellout," was officially recognized as desirable by the _____ _____ _____ __________in 1899.
German Trade Union Congress
The German trade unions and their leaders were thoroughgoing revisionists. Revisionism was an effort by various socialists to update _______ doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
An effort by various socialists to update Marxist doctrines to reflect the realities of the time.
The socialist Eduard Bernstein argued in his __________ ___________ in 1899 that Marx's predictions of ever-greater poverty for workers had been proved false.
Therefore, Bernstein suggested, socialists should reform their doctrines and win gradual evolutionary gains for workers through
legislation, unions, and further economic development.
The Second International denounced these views as _____. Yet the revisionist gradualist approach continued to gain the tacit acceptance of many German socialists, particularly in the trade unions.
Moderation found followers elsewhere. In France the great socialist leader ____ ______ (1859-1914) formally repudiated revisionist doctrines in order to establish aunified socialist party, but he remained at heart a gradualist. Questions of revolutionary versus gradualist policies split Russian Marxists.
In Great Britain the socialist but non-Marxist Labour Party formally committed to gradual ______.
In Spain and Italy __________, seeking to smash the state rather than the bourgeoisie, dominated radical thought and action.
In short, socialist policies and doctrines varied from ______ __ _______. Socialism itself was to a large extent "nationalized." This helps explain why almost all socialist leaders supported their governments when war came in 1914.
country to country