100 terms

Medical Terms Chapter 7: Male Reproductive

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testis, testicle
primary male sex organs, paired, oval-shaped, and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum; the testes produce spermatozoa (sperm cells) and the hormone testosterone
sperm
the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote (fertilized egg) that with subsequent development becomes an embryo
testosterone
the principal male sex hormone; chief function is to stimulate the development of the male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair
semniferous tubules
approximately 900 coiled tubes within the testes in which spermatogenesis
epididymis
coiled tube atop each of the testes that provides for storage, transit, and maturation of sperm; continuous with the vas deferens
vas deferens, ductus deferens, seminal duct
(three terms) duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra; spermatic cord encloses each with nerves, lymphatics, arteries, and veins; the urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body; a circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination
seminal vesicles
two main glands located posterior to the base of the bladder that open into the vas deferens; the glands secrete a thick fluid that forms part of the semen
prostate gland
encircles a proximal section of the urethra; secretes a fluid that aids in the movement of sperm and ejaculation
scrotum
sac containing the testes and epididymis, suspended on both sides of and posterior to the penis
penis
male organ of urination and coitus
glans penis
enlarged tip on the end of the penis
prepuce
fold of skin covering the glans penis in uncircumcised males (foreskin)
semen
composed of sperm, seminal fluids, and other secretions
genitalia
reproductive organs (male or female); also called gonads
balan/o
combining form meaning glans penis
epididym/o
combining form meaning epididymus
orchid/o, orchi/o, orch/o, test/o
combining forms meaning testis, testicles
prostat/o
combining form meaning prostate gland
vas/o
combining form meaning vessel, duct
vesicul/o
combining form meaning seminal vesicle
andr/o
combining form meaning male
sperm/o, spermat/o
combining form meaning spermatazoon (pl. spermatozoa), sperm
anorchism
state of absence of testis (unilateral or bilateral)
balantis
inflammation of the glans penis
balanorrhea
discharge from the glans penis
benign prostatic hyperplasia
BPH; excessive development pertaining to the prostate gland (nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland)
cryptorchidism
state of hidden testes (during fetal development, testes are located in the abdominal area near the kidneys; before birth they move down into the scrotal sac; failure of the testes to descend from the abdominal cavity into the scrotum before birth results in this condition, also called undescended testicles)
epididymitis
inflammation of an epididymus
orchiepididymitis
inflammation of the testis and epididymis
orchitis, orchiditis, testitis
(three terms) inflammation of the testis or testicle
prostatitis
inflammation of the prostate gland
prostatocystitis
inflammation of the prostate gland and the bladder
prostatolith
stone(s) in the prostate gland
prostatorrhea
discharge from the prostate gland
prostatovesiculitis
inflammation of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles
testicular torsion
twisting of the spermatic cord causing decreased blood flow to the testis; occurs most often during puberty and often presents with a sudden onset of severe testicular or scrotal pain; because of lack of blood flow to the testis, it is often considered a surgical emergency
varicocele
enlarged veins of the spermatic cord
radiation therapy
may be performed with an external beam or with radioactive seeds
bilateral orchidectomy, hormonal therapy
reduce the production of testosterone, which fuels the growth of prostate cancer
chemotherapy
treating cancer with drugs
active surveillance
with the intent to pursue active therapy if disease progresses
balanoplasty
surgical repair of the glans penis
epididymectomy
excision of an epididymus
orchidectomy, orchiectomy
excision of the testis (bilateral is called castration)
orchidopexy, orchiopexy
surgical fixation of a testicle (performed to bring undescended testicle[s] into the scrotum
orchidotomy, orchiotomy
incision into a testis
orchioplasty
surgical repair of a testis
prostatectomy
excision of the prostate gland
prostatocystotomy
incision into the prostate gland and bladder
prostatolithotomy
incision into the prostate gland to remove stone(s)
prostatovesiculectomy
excision of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles
vasectomy
excision of a duct (partial excision of the vas deferens bilaterally, resulting in male sterilization)
vasovasostomy
creation of artificial openings between ducts (the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy)
vesiculectomy
excision of the seminal vesicle(s)
circumcision
surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin); all or part of the foreskin may be removed
hydrocelectomy
surgical removal of a hydrocele
radical prostatectomy
RP; excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes; performed by a retropubic, perineal, routine laparoscopic approach, or robotic surgery; used to treat prostate cancer
suprapubic prostatectomy
excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision int eh bladder and prostate capsule; used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); also called suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy
transurethral incision of the prostate gland
TUIP; surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and the prostate gland; no prostate tissue is removed; may be used instead of TURP when the prostate gland is less enlarged
transurethral microwave thermotherapy
TUMT; treatment that eliminates excess tissue present in benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
transurethral resection of the prostate gland
TURP; surgical removal of pieces of the prostate gland tissue by using an instrument inserted through the urethra; capsule is left intact; usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination
transrectal ultrasound
TRUS; ultrasound procedure used to diagnose prostate cancer; sound waves are sent and received by a transducer probe that is placed into the rectum
prostate-specific antigen
PSA; blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood; elevated test results may indicate the presence of prostate cancer, urinary or prostatic infection, or excess prostate tissue, as found in benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis
semen analysis
microscopic observation of ejaculated semen, revealing the size, structure, and movement of sperm; used to evaluate male infertility and to determine the effectiveness of a vasectomy; also called sperm count and sperm test
digital rectal examination
DRE; physical examination in which the health care provider inserts a finger into the rectum and palpates the size and shape of the prostate gland through the rectal wall; used to screen for BPH and prostate cancer; BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement, whereas cancer usually presents as a stony hard nodule
andropathy
disease of the male (specific to the male, such as testitis)
aspermia
condition of without sperm (or semen or ejaculation)
oligospermia
condition of scanty sperm (in the semen; may contribute to infertility)
spermatolysis
dissolution (destruction) of sperm
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS; advanced, chronic immune system suppression caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; manifested by opportunistic infections (such as candidiasis or tuberculosis), neurological disease (peripheral neuropathy or cognitive motor impairment) and/or secondary neoplasms (kaposi sarcoma)
artificial insemination
introduction of semen into the vagina by artificial means
azoospermia
lack of live sperm in the semen
chlamydia
sexually transmitted disease, caused by the bacterium C. trachomatis; sometimes referred to as a silent STD because many people are not aware they have the disease; symptoms that occur when the disease becomes serious are painful urination and discharge from the penis in men and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in women
coitus
sexual intercourse between male and female
condom
cover for the penis worn during coitus to prevent conception and the spread of sexually transmitted disease
ejaculation
ejection of semen from the male urethra
genital herpes
sexually transmitted disease caused by herpesvirus hominis type 2; also called herpes simplex virus
gonorrhea
sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that inflames the mucous membranes of the genitourinary tract
human immunodeficiency virus
HIV; sexually transmitted disease caused by a retrovirus that infects T-helper cells of the immune system; may also be acquired in utero or transmitted through infected blood via needle sharing; advanced infection progresses to AIDS
human papillomavirus
HPV; sexually transmitted disease caused by viral infection; there are more than 40 types of HPV that cause benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals (also called venereal warts)
infertility
reduced or absent ability to become pregnant; generally defined after one year of frequent, unprotected coitus; may relate to male or female
orgasm
climax of sexual stimulation
puberty
period when secondary sex characteristics develop and the ability to reproduce sexually begins
sexually transmitted disease
STD; infection spread through sexual contact; STDs affect both males and females, causing damage to reproductive organs and potentially serious health consequences if left untreated; also called venereal disease (VD) and sexually transmitted infection (STI)
sterilization
surgical procedure that renders an individual unable to produce offspring
syphilis
sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium treponema pallidum; may be acquired in utero or, less often, contracted through direct contact with infected tissue; if left untreated the infection usually progresses through three clinical stages with a latent period; the initial local infection quickly becomes systemic with widespread dissemination of the bacterium
trichomoniasis
sexually transmitted diseased caused by a one-cell organism Trichomonas; infects the genitouirnary tract; men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis; women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
AIDS
benign prostatic hyperplasia
BPH
digital rectal examination
DRE
erectile dysfunction
ED
human immunodeficiency virus
HIV
human papillomavirus
HPV
prostate-specific antigen
PSA
radical prostatectomy
RP
sexually transmitted disease
STD
transrectal ultrasound
TRUS
transurethral incision of the prostate
TUIP
transurethral microwave thermotherapy
TUMT
transurethral resection of the prostate
TURP