9 terms

Set 7 - AA Catabolism

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When are urea cycle enzymes increased?
1. individual has large intake of proteins
2. under extreme starvation/uncontrolled diabetes & proteins are supplying metabolic energy
When are urea cycle enzymes decreased?
1. individual has small intake of proteins
2. individual has diet exclusively of carbs & fats
allosteric regulation
controls short-term regulation by regulating CPS I
hyperammonemia
increased [NH4+] in blood; leads to brain edema causing coma, lethargy, brain damage
Urea cycle treatments
Benzoate removes glycine
phenylbutyrate
What is the primary source of fuel during light activity/rest?
Free Fatty Acids (& ketone bodies, glucose)
What is the source of fuel during heavy activity?
Blood glucose, glycogen undergo glycolysis to produce pyruvate
Cori Cycle
lactate travels through bloodstream to liver where it is converted back to pyruvate (via lactate dehydrogenase) which undergoes gluconeogenesis to produce glucose which is transported back through bloodstream to muscle to produce more ATP via anaerobic respiration
glucose-alanine cycle
1. muscle protein broken down to AAs & amino groups collected on glutamate
2. pyruvate from glycolysis & glutamate react to produce alpha-KG & alanine via alanine aminotransferase
3. alanine transported via blood into liver
4. alanine aminotransferase generates glutamate & pyruvate (reverse)
5. glutamate undergoes oxidative deamination, pyruvate produces glucose via gluconeogenesis which is transported to muscles to produce ATP