131 terms

Biology Test 3

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Skin is an organ. This means that skin is comprised of:
two or more tissue types working together
The epidermal cells called ______ are responsible for producing the pigment found in the skin
melanocyte
What is the function of the lunula of the nail?
site of nail growth
Name the area where hair growth occurs.
hair bulb
Name the function of the arrector pili.
To shift position of hair follicles
Vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the dermis of the skin is a response to a(n) ______ in body temperature.
Decrease
The process of _____ occurs in response to tissue injury or stress and involves increased blood flow and increased permeability of blood vessels in the area of injury.
inflammation
An organ contains
two or more tissues grouped together that function together
The skin
retards water loss from deeper tissues.
excretes wastes.
regulates body temperature.
synthesizes vitamin D
The major blood vessels that supply skin cells are found in the
subcutaneous layer
Skin cancer cells are most likely to develop from
nonpigmented epithelial cells
The main function of melanocytes is to
produce melanin
Cutaneous carcinomas are most commonly caused by exposure to
ultraviolet light
The most common cause of cutaneous melanoma is
relatively short exposure to high intensity sunlight
Exposure to ultraviolet light darkens the skin by stimulating production of
melanin
Blood with excess oxygen causes cyanosis.
false
The outermost layer of the epidermis is stratum basale and the innermost layer is stratum corneum.
false
The deepest cells of the epidermis make up the stratum ____________.
basale
__________ is the pigment produced by melanocytes.
melanin
A nail consists of a
nail bed and nail plate
Eccrine sweat glands
respond primarily to elevated body temperature
Acne is a disorder involving the
sebaceous glands
the arrector pili muscle is composed of __________ muscle tissue.
smooth
The regulation of body temperature is of vital importance because
slight shifts in temperature can disrupt the rates of metabolic reactions
Which of the following is a normal response to excess loss of body heat in a cold environment?
Dermal blood vessels constrict.
Sweat glands become inactive.
Skeletal muscles contract involuntarily.
Less blood flows to dermal vessels.
All of these
all of these
When the body temperature rises above normal, dermal blood vessels are likely to constrict.
false
A bone is a(n)______that contains _____________type(s) of tissue(s)
organ, many different
A bone is a ____ structure composed mainly of _____tissue
living, osseous
Bone also includes hyaline ______, dense connective tissue, _______ (a fluid), and _______ (for sensory information)
cartilage, blood, nervous tissue
What is the end of a long bone called?
epiphysis
What is the definition of hematopoiesis?
The process of blood cell formation
What is the role or function of yellow marrow in the bone tissue?
Yellow bone marrow is a site for storage of fat
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
protect soft tissue
exchange gases for the body
Which of the following bones are part of the appendicular skeleton?
scapula
There are _ bones of the skull that protect the brain
8
What are the small holes in the skull called that serve as passageways for blood vessels and nerves?
foramina
Which bone is the most posterior skull bone?
occipital
The sphenoid bone makes a portion of the orbit
true
What sits in the sella turcica?
pituitary glands
Which location is not made up by the ethmoid bone?
Anterior roof of the mouth
Which bone makes a portion of the roof of the mouth?
palatine bone
All cranial bones function to protect the brain and thus form a portion of the cranial cavity
true
Which bone does not make up a part of the orbit?
vomer
What bone makes the anterior base of the skull, forms a portion of the orbit, and is comprised of a body and two wings?
sphenoid
What 2 bones make the nasal septum?
ethmoid and vomer
What facial bone is the only bone not joined to other skull bones by sutures?
mandible
Cranial bones include:
frontal
parietal
occipital
temporal
sphenoid
ethmoid
Facial bones include:
maxilla
palatine
zygomatic
lacrimal
nasal
vomer
infereior nasal concha
mandible
Upper arm bone
humerus
Collar bone
clavicle
Shoulder blade
scapula
Lateral bone of the forearm
radius
Medial bone of the forearm
ulna
Thigh bone
femur
Lateral lower leg bone
fibula
Medial lower leg bone
tibia
Knee cap
patella
Choose the joint characteristic that applies to all joints of the body
All joints are connections between neighboring bones.
Name the cell found in bone that functions to deposit bony matrix, resulting in the growth of bone tissue.
osteoblast
Throughout life, bone tissue continues to change. ______ are responsible for resorbing bone matrix and ______ are responsible for replacing it
Osteoclasts; osteoblasts
What vitamin is necessary for proper absorption of calcium in the small intestines?
vitamin D
Osteoclasts are large cells that cause the breakdown of osseous tissue.
True
________ are the cells that form bone tissue by depositing bony matrix around themselves.
osteoblasts
Which of the following is NOT a step in the formation of endochondral bone?
Hyaline cartilage changes to adipose tissue
Bone that develops within sheetlike layers of connective tissue is called _______
intramembranous bone.
Red bone marrow functions in the formation of _______
red and white blood cells and platelets.
The cells responsible for removing excess bone tissue after the fracture repair process are _____
osteoclasts
Vitamin D is needed for the proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine
true
__________ is the process of blood cell formation.
Hematopoiesis
Which of the following is NOT included in the appendicular skeleton
Vertebral column
The appendicular skeleton consists of the parts that support and protect the head, neck, and trunk.
true
The importance of fontanels in the infant's skull is to permit some movement of bones, thereby enabling the infant to pass more easily though the birth canal
true
A hip bone includes a (an) _______
ilium.
ischium.
pubis.
acetabulum.
The tarsal bones form the wrist
false
The joints between the vertebrae of the backbone are best described as _______
slightly movable
The degenerative joint disease osteoarthritis may develop as a result of damage to the _______
articular cartilage
A meniscus functions to cushion articulating surfaces of bones.
true
Synovial fluid moistens and lubricates the cartilaginous surfaces within a joint.
true
The hip joint is a pivot joint.
false
The movement of a limb away from the midline is _____
abduction
A bone includes _______
bone tissue.
blood.
dense connective
tissue.
cartilage.
Which of the following is not a function of bone?
To provide nervous communication from bone to muscle
Articular cartilage is _______
hyaline cartilage
The presence of an epiphyseal plate indicates that ______
the bone is lengthening
Which of the following describes the female pelvis compared to that of the male?
The distance between the female ischial spines is greater
The femur _______
-is the longest bone in the body.
-extends from the hip to the knee.
-has a large rounded head.
-articulates with the patella
Which of the following terms and descriptions is correctly paired?
Pronation-turning the hand so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)
The two myofilaments are the thin filaments, composed primarily of the protein ___, and the thick filament, composed of ___
actin; myosin
What is the A band?
the length of the myosin myofilament
What is the I band?
the area where there are thin filaments but no overlapping thick filaments
What is the H zone?
the are of no myofilament overlap, where there is just thick myosin filaments
The H zones and I bands are at maximum width when a muscle is___
relaxed
The ___ are pulled toward the center of the sacromere
actin filaments
The _ band disappears when a muscle is fully contracted
H
Muscle action can cause (4 things)
movement of bones
firing of nerve cells
squeezing of intestinal contents
secretion of hormones
Muscle contraction leads to movement of blood, intestinal contents, and limbs.
true
Which of the following best describes myofibrils?
comprised of thick and thin filaments
The striations seen in skeletal muscle consist of alternating dark bands, called the ____ bands, and light bands, called the ____ bands.
A; I
Name of the type of synapse that occurs between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
neuromuscular junction
The neurotransmitter that is released at neuromuscular junctions and that stimulates skeletal muscle to contract is ______.
acetylcholine
In order for a skeletal muscle fiber to contract, calcium must bind to:
troponin
During the contraction cycle, what is the result of ATP binding to myosin?
Myosin heads release from the binding site on actin.
The amount of oxygen needed to repay the oxygen debt includes the amount of oxygen that muscle cells need to resynthesize ATP.
true
The smallest stimulus strength that triggers a contraction in a muscle fiber is called a(n) ______ stimulus.
threshold
Define muscle tone.
Contraction of muscles while at rest.
The type of smooth muscle in which all of cells contract together is ______ smooth muscle.
visceral
The cells of visceral smooth muscles function as separate units, independent of neighboring cells.
False
Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle:
takes longer to contract and can stay contracted longer.
A sarcomere is best described as _______
a unit within a myofibril
Myofibrils are composed primarily of
actin and myosin
A motor unit typically includes
one motor neuron and several muscle fibers
Endomysium separates individual muscle fibers from each other.
true
Neurotransmitter molecules are stored in vesicles within
motor neuron endings
The enzyme acetylcholinesterase causes acetylcholine to
decompose
The amount of oxygen needed to support the conversion of lactic acid to glucose by the liver is called the
oxygen debt
A muscle cramp is most likely due to a temporary lack of
ATP
In the initiation of muscle contraction, calcium ions bind to tropomyosin, exposing active sites on actin for cross-bridge formation.
False
An example of a partial but sustained contraction of a whole muscle is
muscle tone
The characteristic reddish brown color of skeletal muscle comes from which substance?
myoglobin
The threshold stimulus is the
minimum strength of stimulus required to cause muscle fiber contraction to occur
Rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to
lack of ATP increased membrane permeability to calcium ions
During anaerobic respiration, pyruvic acid molecules are converted into molecules of ____________.
lactic acid
Activities such as distance swimming and distance running are most likely to stimulate development of
slow fatigue-resistant muscle fibers
When a muscle undergoes atrophy in response to disuse,
-there is a reduction in capillary networks
-the number of mitochondria decreases
-the size of actin and myosin filaments decreases
-the muscle gets smaller
The time lag between when a muscle is stimulated and when it begins to contract is called the ______________.
latent period
Compared to skeletal muscle, smooth muscle
contracts more slowly and relaxes more slowly
Cardiac muscle is located in the walls of blood vessels.
False
Muscles that assist a prime mover are called _______________.
synergists
Functions of muscle include
-the heartbeat.
-muscle tone.
-production of heat.
-moving body parts.
The moveable end of a muscle is attached at its
insertion
The muscle primarily responsible for opposing a particular action is called the
antagonist