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hydrocarbons + sunlight + O₂(g) + CO (g) + NOx (g)→ O₃ (g) + NOx (g) + Organic Compounds + CO₂ (g) + H₂O (g)
Terms in this set (92)
substances that are found in the air that are not normal components of the atmosphere or that are present at elevated concentrations.
the Earth's tropospheric air has not changed significantly in thousands of years, true or false?
nitrogen and oxygen
two main gases in the atmosphere
local changes to air do take place on a regular basis, true or false?
emission of volcanic gases, forest fires, wind erosion
natural pollutant examples
burning of fossil fuels: gasoline powered vehicles, coal-based electricity (factories), waste burning, power-plants, mining, diesel combustion, road building
anthropogenic pollutant examples
smells bad and looks unsightly. Can cause corroding to buildings and machines
Yes, it can result in bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, lung cancer
Can contaminated air cause disease?
Which source produces more major air contaminants, human or natural?
may dilute, transform, or disperse naturally emitted substances before they accumulate to harmful levels in the air.
air pollutants from human activities are usually generated within _______ areas
When the amount of an air contaminant overwhelms the ability of natural processes to disperse or dispose of it. The weather-related air movement does not produce even spreading for thick concentrations, in result there are large cities with heavily contaminated air and smaller cities with little contamination.
When is the air quality a serious problem?
Primary air pollutants
these contaminants in air directly enter the atmosphere, either as a result of a natural or human-initiated process.
Secondary air pollutants
these contaminants in air are formed in the atmosphere when primary air components react either with each other or with natural air components.
Volatile organic compounds
primary air pollutants; group of hydrocarbons that easily evaporate or are gaseous at room temperature.
-enters the atmosphere as a by-product of fossil-fuel use and a component of natural gas.
-produced naturally in large quantities by anaerobic bacteria as they break down organic matter, a process that occurs in wetlands, landfills, and within the digestive systems of animals such as cows and sheep.
-made up of C and H molecules.
-They may also contain O and N molecules.
-They are usually unburned fuel molecules, but release of these compounds have also been linked to natural processes
-Several types of trees are known to emit large amounts of these.
include microscopic particles that enter the air from either human activities or natural processes.
Small because they can penetrate deep into the lungs
Which size of particles that are emitted from diesel-burning vehicles are more dangerous to human health, small or large?
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
for purposes of regulation, this association classifies some air pollutants as hazardous air pollutants or criteria pollutants.
are both commonly found throughout the US and detrimental to human health or the environment.
Hazardous Air pollutants
aka: air toxics, suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects or adverse environmental effects.
1. hazardous 2. criteria
Although some 1. (criteria/hazardous) pollutants are far more dangerous than 2. (criteria/hazardous) pollutants they are generally much less common.
CO, SOx, NOx, O₃, Pb, PM
US EPA Criteria Pollutants
passive sampling, active sampling, automatic point monitoring, and remote open path monitoring
4 methods of measuring air pollution
collects pollutants through diffusion onto a filter or membrane; samples are sealed in the field
collects samples by pumping air through a collector in the field for a known period of time
uses analytical methods to measure hourly pollutant concentrations at a single point
Remote open path monitoring
uses light waves to make concentration measurements of several pollutants at once.
surrounding or encompassing
term used by the EPA and scientists to refer to outside air
criteria pollutants, visibility measurements, and detection of acid rain precursors.
the current air-quality monitoring networks in the US focus on these three things
samples from the troposphere
necessary to model atmospheric processes and determine the fate of pollutants after emission. Collection devices and monitoring systems must be able to withstand harsh conditions and high altitudes.
rocket, retrofitted aircraft, specially designed balloons
transportation options for high-level altitudes
spacecrafts and satellites
machines examples for high-level altitudes
accuracy and precision
the validity of data measurements from sampling and analysis procedures depends upon these two factors
the extent to which a measurement represents its corresponding actual values
describes how closely repeated measurements cluster around the same value.
contributes about half the total mass of human-generated air contaminants.
In 1952, a deadly air pollution incident over ____ lasted five days and contributed to the deaths of nearly 4000 people
In 1948, pollutant laden air killed 20 people and hospitalized hundreds of people in this coal-mining town
potentially hazardous condition that is formed when large quantities or air pollutants are released into a concentrated area, usually a city, and meteorological conditions do not allow the pollutants to disperse.
reduced visibility, irritation of eyes and lungs, damage to materials
indicators of smog
fatality rates from smog are produced by excess
an interaction where the combined effect of several factors is greater than the sum of their separate effects
Los Angeles, CA
in the 1940s a brownish haze that irritate the eyes, nose, and throat, and also damaged crops appeared above _____.
1. motor vehicles 2. sunshine 3. location
The Los Angeles smog case was surprising because they had no significant industrial or heating activities. However, the city did have many 1. ______ , abundant 2. ______ and an enclosed ______ that together, combined to form photochemical smog.
a cool air mass is trapped beneath a less dense warm air mass, often in a valley or over a city
a potentially hazardous mixture of secondary pollutants formed by solar irradiation of certain primary pollutants in the presence of oxygen.
During a temperature inversion, air pollutants cannot escape so their concentrations may rise to dangerous levels.
why are temperature inversions dangerous?
the accumulation of pollutants
The production of photochemical smog is amplified by
any reaction initiated by light is a _______ reaction
pungent irritating odor. inhibits plant growth. can cause human respiratory distress after an hour of exposure
powerful oxidizing agent. can crack rubber, corrode metals and damage plant and animal tissues. May cause chest pain, shortness of breath, throat irritation, and coughing. may also cause asthma, and compromise the body's ability to fight respiratory infections.
air quality rating
the substances in smog can endanger health, so as a result weather forecasters often give an _____ stating the levels of substances in smog for interest of the public.
Air Quality Index (AQI)
the EPA devised this which is based on concentrations of pollutants that are major contributors to smog in metropolitan areas (chart on page 247)
rain that has a pH lower than what is natural for the area
rain, snow, sleet, or hail that has a pH lower than what is natural for the area.
the average pH of natural, unpolluted precipitation
is a convenient way to measure and report the acidic, basic, or chemically neutral character of a solution.
range of pH scale
0 to 14
any pH solution with a value less than 7.0
any pH solution with a value more than 7.0
basic solutions are also known as ______
a change of one pH unit indicates a ______ difference in acidity or alkalinity
______ solutions react with vegetable dye litmus to turn it blue
______solutions react with vegetable dye litmus to turn it red
1. electricity 2. chemically react
both acidic and basic solutions conduct 1. _______ and are able to 2. ________ with many other substances
are made up of molecules, including one or more hydrogen atoms that can be released rather easily in water solution.
acidic hydrogen atoms are usually written (first/second) in the formula for an acid
ionic substances that include hydroxide ions (OH-)
Some bases like NaHCO3, contain no OH- ions but still produce basic solutions because they react with _____ to generate OH- ions
7.0 on the pH scale, water
the atmosphere contains some substances that produce acidic solutions when dissolved in water. The acidic pH of natural precipitation is mainly due to reaction of carbon dioxide with water in the atmosphere, forming carbonic acid (H₂CO₃)
why is the pH of rainwater normally acidic naturally?
volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and lightning bolts
natural events can contribute to the acidity of precipitation, such as:
The rain is naturally acidic, the increased acidity of precipitation leads to problems associated with corrosion and plant death.
why is acid rain a problem?
lower (sometimes to 4.5)
when sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are emitted from power plants, various industries, and fossil fuel-burning vehicles, they can react with water vapor to form acids. These acids ______ the pH of water
acid rain can directly damage plant material, as well as leaching onto needed minerals from the soil and releasing toxic substances into the soil.
how can acid rain damage plants?
more soluble in water than calcium carbonate, as it forms it washes away, uncovering fresh solid calcium carbonate that reacts further with acid rain.
acid attacks _________ in limestone, marble, and cement according to this equation
often carry sulfur oxides through the air so acid rain often shows up hundreds of kilometers from the original sources of air contamination
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
were enacted to address issues of acid rain. The compliance plan created by these amendments imposed emissions restrictions on fossil-fuel power plants.
stationary fuel burning
largest contributor to SO2 emissions
emissions are formed by reaction of atmospheric nitrogen gas with oxygen gas at the high temperatures associated with most forms of combustion
1. transportation and 2. stationary fuel burning
the two largest contributors to NOx emissions
what is responsible for the largest total amount of gaseous air pollutants in the US?
which of the following chemicals are not a product of photochemical smog?
O2, O3, NOx, SOx
symbol for hydroxide ion
it often falls hundreds of kilometers from where it was produced
why is acid rain difficult to deal with?
the data is precise but not accurate
A scientist was attempting to measure 5.6 g of sodium hydroxide. During her attempt, she attained the following data. Describe the data in terms of its precision and accuracy
Blue, the darker the more exposure to Ozone
the resulting color of schonbein paper in Ozone
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