Terms in this set (57)
rebuilding after the civil war
"pardon" to all southerners who took an oat of loyalty to the United States and accepted the unions proclamations concerning slavery
Leader of Radical Republicans, Representative of Pennsylvania. Did not want to reconcile with the south, Wanted to "revolutionize Southern institutions, habits and manners."
Letting session of congress expire without signing the legislation
African Americans who served in the US cavalry, mostly stationed in the South western US
Lincolns plan for Reconstruction
-Appoint governors under union control in Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana.
-Proclamation of Amnesty, when 10% of a states voters in 1860 prez election had taken oath, they could organize and new state gov.
3 goals of Radical Republicans
1- Prevent leaders of confederacy from returning to power
2-Republican party to become powerful institution in the south
3-Federal Government help African Americans achieve political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote in the south
What may have motivated some Republicans to lobby for African American voting rights?
the 3/5 compromise being thrown out meant 15 more seats in the House of Representatives for the south. Republicans wanted extra seats filled with Republicans to keep democrats from taking control.
Required the majority of adult men in a former confederacy state to take an oath of allegiance to the Union, then the state could hold a constitutional convention to create a new state government, each state would then have to ban slavery, reject all debts acquired as part of the confederacy and deprive all former confederate government officials and military officers the right to vote or take office. Bill was passed by congress but blocked by Lincoln with a pocket veto because he felt that imposing a harsh peace would be counter productive and alienate many whites in the south and the south was already in chaos.
What did Shermamn establish for freed African Americans following the war?
He reserved all abandoned plantation land within 30 miles of the coast from Charleston, SC to Jacksonville, FL for use by freedmen
Freedman's Bureau and its accomplishments.
Established by Congress, given the task of feeding and clothing war refugees in the south by using surplus army supplies.
-Issued nearly 30,000 rations/day in 1865-1866
-helped prevent mass starvation in the south
-helped formerly enslaved people w/ work on plantations, negotiating labor contracts with planters (pay and hours)
-Established special courts to deal with grievances between workers and planters.
-Worked with Northern charities to educate formerly enslaved African Americans, providing housing for schools, paid teachers and helped to establish colleges for training African American teachers.
Series of laws passed by new southern states legislatures which severely limited the rights of African Americans in the South, keeping them in a condition similar to slavery. Required African Americans to enter into annual labor contracts, set specific work hours and required licences to work non agricultural jobs. Children were required to accept apprenticeships where they would be whipped and beaten.
Civil rights act of 1866
Guaranteed citizenship to all persons born in the US except Native Americans. Allowed African Americans to ow property and stated they were to be treated equally in court. Gave federal government power to sue people who violated those rights.
guaranteed citizenship to all persons born or natualized in the US and declared that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. Declared no state could deny any person equal protection under the law. Passed in June 1866
Tenure of office Act
Required senate to approve the removal of any government official whose appointment had required senates consent.
The right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
President Andrew Johnson's "restoration program"
-New Proclimation of Amnesty to supplement Lincolns earlier one
-offered pardon toa ll former citizens of the Confederacy who took an oath of loyalty to the Union and returned to their property (excluding former confederate officers and officials and people who owned property worth more than $20,000. Those guys had to apply to president individually for pardon of acts committed during civil war)
-Proclamation in NC to model how he wanted to restore south to the union. Had to call a constitutional convention to ratify 13th amendment and reject civil war debts.
Who was victorious in the Congressional elections of 1866?
Republicans, 3-1 majority.
Military Reconstruction Act
Passed in March 1867 by congressional republicans and wiped out Johnson's program.
-Divided former confederacy except Tennessee, into 5 military districts and a Union general was appointed to be in charge of each district.
Which states were readmitted by the end of 1868?
North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana & Arkansas
What happened after Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act?
-President Johnson fired secretary of war Edwin M. Stanton on February 21, 1868.
-Stanton barricaded himself in his office and refused to leave
-House of Representatives voted to Impeach Johnson for breaking the law by not upholding the Tenure of Office Act and for removing 4 commanders in Southern Military districts who supported the Republicans
-Senate put President on trial.
Why was President Johnson Impeached? What was the result of the trial?
-Attempting to undermine the Reconstruction program (firing Stanton and removing commanders who supported republicans)
-Senate voted 35 to 19 that Johnson was guilty of high treason, one vote short of what was needed for conviction
-Edmund G. Ross was the deciding vote and he saved Johnson
-Senators opposed to impeachment believed it would set a dangerous precedent to impeach president simply because he didn't agree with congressional policies.
Who won the Presidential election of 1868
General Ulysses S. Grant
Northerners who moved to the south. a few were eventually elected or appointed to position in South's new state governments. Viewed as intruders seeking to exploit the south. called carpetbaggers because some of them had suitcases made of carpet. Some wanted to take advantage of the south in shambles and others sought opportunities the south offered and others wanted to help control the chaos.
Southerners who worked with Republicans and supported Reconstruction. (old Scotch-Irish term for weak, underfed, worthless animals)
Reluctant to enter politics, but became the first African American in United states Senate in 1870. Formerly a minister and school principal.
First African American elected to the House of Representatives. Formerly a barber. Object of intense scrutiny. Worked tirelessly to advance African American civil rights.
Klu Klux Klan established in 1866 by former confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee. Wore White robs and hoods .
Goal of the KKK
-To Drive out Union carpetbaggers and regain control of the South for the Democratic party
-Terrorize supporters of republican government at night.
-Drive Freedman's Bureau officials out of communities
-Burn African American homes, schools and churches.
-Keep African Americans and white Republicans from voting.
Who supported the Republican party in the South?
Owners of small farms who didn't want the wealthy planters to regain power
Business people who favored plans for developing South's economy
How many African Americans were elected to the House of Representatives, The Senate and State Legislature?
House of Reps-14
State Legislature- Dozens
What were the 3 Enforcement Acts?
-Made it federal crime to interfere with a citizens right to vote
-Federal elections held under supervision of federal marshals
-Outlawed activities of the Klan
How many Klanmen were arrested and convicted? Served in prison?
3,000 arrested, 600 convicted, even fewer sent to prison.
Taxes on alcohol and tobacco which helped government pay off bonds issued to pay for civil war.
"Whiskey Ring" scandal
A grou of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions of dollars by filing false tax reports. Grant's private secretary was reportedly in the group.
Panic of 1873
A series of bad railroad invesment forced powerful banking firm Jay Cook & Company to declare bankruptcy which quickly spread fear through nations financial community. Caused scores of smaller banks to close and stock market to plummet. Thousands of businesses shut down and tens of thousands of Americans were out of work
Compromise of 1873
Outcome of Hayes/Tilden presidential election because Hayes couldn't have won without the support of southern Democrats, many concluded that a deal had been made. Historians don't know if it really was a deal or what the terms may have been. Reportedly included a promise by Republicans to pull federal troops out of South is Hayes was elected.
Rather than paying money, tenant farmers would pay a share of the crops (1/2 or 2/3) to owner of land for rent as well as the cost of seed, fertilizer, tools and animals.
Trapped sharecroppers on their land because they couldn't make enough money to pay off their debts and leave, nor could they declare bankruptcy, leading to imprisonment or forced labor
Why did Republican party split in 1872? Who won the Presidential election in 1872?
Liberal Republicans were concerned that men who were in office to make money and sell influence were beginning to dominate the Republican party.
Who won control of the House in 1874? Why?
Democrats because of the Grant administration's scandals and the deepening economic depression.
How were the Democrats able to win enough support to take back control of all but 3 of the Southern state legislatures?
Appealing to white racism and defining the elections as a struggle between Whites and African Americans
How did Republican Rutherford B. Hayes win the Presidential election of 1876
Tilden had won 184 electoral votes. Hayes won 165 electoral votes. 20 votes left in dispute, too much election fraud on both sides to determine a winner. Congress appointed a commission of 15 persons made up equally of members of the House, Senate and Supreme Court (8 Republicans and 7 Democrats). They oted to give Hayes the electoral votes, decision not binding if both houses of Congress rejected it but after much debate, several Southern Democrats joined with Republicans (who held majority in House of Representatives) because they made a deal to remove federal troops from the South. So they voted to accept commission's findings and the election when to Hayes.
What was going to be the economic basis of the "New South?"
Industry- steel and iron, cotton mills
Railroads, 40,000 miles by 1890, 4 times amount in 1860
What happened to African Americans as Reconstruction collapsed in the South?
They had little political power and were forced into labor under difficult and unfair conditions.
Payments to reservation dwellers, at least once a year 5-30 cents per acre
Dakota Sioux Uprising
Annuities were late, Chief Little Crow asked traders to provide his people food on credit and a traders said they could "eat the grass or their own dung" Trader was shot and had grass stuffed in his mouth. Little crow wanted to wage war with soldiers but couldn't keep Dakota from slaughtering settlers. Hundreds died before troops arrived. 307 Dakota sentenced to death for taking part in uprising but president Lincoln reviewed the evidence and reduced number to 38 executions
Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
Americans who never set foot on the great plains enjoyed make believe excursions through the show. Cast performed mock buffalo hunt with real buffalo and reenacted Custer's defeat at little big horn. Annie Oakley was a star in the show as a sharpshooter.
Ambush of U.S. Troops, resulting in all 80 US soldiers involved to die, orchestrated by Crazy Horse when settlers were trying to take the Lakota land. Bozeman, MT December 1866
Indian Peace Commission
1867 formed by congress. proposed creating 2 large reservations on the Plains, one for Sioux aand other for southern plains Indian's. Agents from the federal government bureau of Indian Affairs would run the reservations. Some native leaders didn't cooperate, those who did were met with poverty and corruption.
Lieutenant who underestimated fighting capabilities of Lakota and Cheyenne. On July 25, 1876, attacked in broad daylight 2,500 Native Americans (Largest gathering ever). The Cheyenne and Lakota killed all of them and newspapers portrayed Custer as the victim of a massacre.
1831-1890. Lakota Chief. Performed the Sun Dance, cut his arms and shoulders and danced with his arms above his head for 2 days. After he passed out into a deathlike trance, he woke up and said he had a vision of white soldiers upside down. Many believed he helped defeat Custer.
December 29, 1890. Troops tried to disarm the Native Americans who had participated in the banned Ghost Dance with Sitting Bull Gun fire broke out and a deadly battle killed 25 Us soldiers and 200 Lakota men, women and children.
Sand Creek, Colorado 1860
-Cheyenne and Arapaho bands raided wagons, burned ranches and killed settlers
-Native Americans ordered to surrender at Fort Lyron
-Nov. 1864 Chief Black Kettle and a group of Cheyenne went to fort not to surrender but to negotiate and peace treaty
-Told to form a camp by Sand Creek near fort to wait for negotiations
-Colonel John Chivington decided that since they had killed women and children there could be no peace
-Americans attack Cheyenne killing between 69 and 600 Natives
-14 soldiers died
-later called "the foulest and most unjustifiable crime in the annals of America"
Cause and Result of the Battle of Little Bighorn
Fortune hunters overran Lakota and Sioux reservations so since American settlers violated treaty the Native Americans saw no reason they should abide by it either and many left reservations to hunt near the Bighorn mountains. Government sent expedition to put them back on the reservation. Natives killed all the soldiers. Resulted in army stepping up campaign against Native Americans. Some fled to Canada, the rest forced back onto reservation.
How did Chief Joseph resist the government's attempts to move the Nez Perce to a smaller reservation? What happened to the Nez Perce?
-They fled and traveled more than 1,300 miles
-Oct. 1877 Chief Joseph surrendered and his followers were exiled to Oklahoma
-Had no blankets no food and no hope.
What was the Dawes Act? Why didn't the plan work?
1877 law which allotted to each head of household 160 acres of reservation land for farming; single adults received 80 acres and children were allotted 40. The land that remained would be sold to American settlers with the proceeds going in to a trust for the Native Americans.
DIDN'T WORK BECAUSE
-Many Native Americans had little training or enthusiasm for farming/ranching
-allotments too small to be profitable so they sold them
-Didn't want reservations to become ranches.