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Soc Chapter 2 terms

STUDY
PLAY
Culture
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next
Material Culture
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
Nonmaterial Culture
(also called symbolic culture) a group's way of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns and behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
Culture Shock
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
Ethnocentrism
the use of one's own culture as a yard-stick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors
Cultural Relativism
not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
Symbolic Culture
another term for nonmaterial culture
Symbol
something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others
Gestures
the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another
Language
a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
Values
the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
Norms
expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values
Sanctions
expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms
Positive Sanction
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a prize
Negative Sanction
an expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such as a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution
Folkways
norms that are not strictly enforced
Mores
norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group
Taboo
a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated
Subculture
the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world
Counterculture
a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
Pluralistic Society
A society made up of many different groups.
Value Cluster
values that together form a larger whole
Value Contradiction
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
Ideal Culture
the ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them
Real Culture
The norms and values that people actually follow
Cultural Universal
a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group
Sociobiology
a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be the fundamental cause of human behavior
Technology
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
New Technology
the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
Cultural Lag
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
Cultural Diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Cultural Leveling
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations