Upgrade to remove ads
psych test 3
Terms in this set (51)
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior.
an innate, biologically determined urge to attain a goal or satisfy a need.
a complex behavior that is patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior.
the tendency for people to do better on simple tasks when in the presence of other people. This implies that, whenever people are being watched by others, they will do well on things that they are already good at doing.
the spillover effect
A secondary effect that follows from a primary effect, and may be far removed in time or place from the event that caused the primary effect.
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological ressponses to emotion-arousing stimulai
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (one) physiologcal responses and (two) the subjective experience of emotion.
four theories of motivation
instinct theory, drive reduction theory, arousal theory, and Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs
now replaced by the evolutionary perspective, the instinct theory focuses on generally predisposed behaviors
drive reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
focuses on finding the right level of stimulation
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow. the pyramid of human needs, beginning with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs become active.
the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases.
the hierarchy of needs in order
physiological, safety, belonging and love, esteem, self actualization, self transcendence
Maslows HoN 1: Physiological needs
need to satisfy hunger and thirst
Maslows HoN 2: Safety needs
need to feel that the world is organised and predictable. need to feel safe.
Maslows HoN 3: belonging and love needs
need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted. need to avoid loneliness and separation.
Maslows HoN 4: esteem needs
need for self esteem, acheivement, competence, and independence, need for recognition and respect from others.
Maslows Hon 5: self actualization needs
need to live up to our fullest and unique potential
maslows Hon 6: self trancendence needs
need to find meaning and identity beyond the self
the appetite hormones
insulin(from pancreas), ghrelin(from an empty stomach), leptin(protein hormone secreated by fat cells), orexin(from the hypothalamus), PYY(digestive tract hormone)
can be defined as the need for success or the attainment of excellence. Individuals will satisfy their needs through different means, and are driven to succeed for varying reasons both internal and external.
3 components of emotion
arousal, behavior, and cognition
two factor theory of emotion
the schachter-singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal.
2 components of emotion according to the 2 factor theory
physical arousal and cognitive appraisal
the process by which we percieve and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
tend and befriend response
under stress, people (usually women) often provide support to others and bond with and seek support from others
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together effect the immune system and resulting health.
in psychology, the idea that releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges.
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to ones stress reaction.
a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection.
a form of small leukocyte (white blood cell) with a single round nucleus, occurring especially in the lymphatic system. B fights bacteria and comes from bone marrow and T attacks cancer cells
a condition in which a person suffers from a sense of powerlessness, arising from a traumatic event or persistent failure to succeed. It is thought to be one of the underlying causes of depression.
locus of control
A person with an internal locus of control believes that he or she can influence events and their outcomes, while someone with an external locus of control blames outside forces for everything. This concept was brought to light in the 1950′s by Julian Rotter.
the feel good do good phenomenon
peoples tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
refers to how people experience the quality of their lives and includes both emotional reactions and cognitive judgments. Psychologists have defined happiness as a combination of life satisfaction and the relative frequency of positive and negative affect.
the study of happiness. Psychology traditionally focused on dysfunction: people with mental illness or other psychological problems and how to treat them. Positive psychology, in contrast, is a relatively new field that examines how ordinary people can become happier and more fulfilled.
the adaptation level phenomenon
A psychological principle important in understanding happiness is the adaptation-level phenomenon. This theory, as described by David G. Myers in his work, The Pursuit of Happiness, describes the human tendency to judge various stimuli and situations relative to those we have previously experienced.
the experience of being deprived of something to which one believes to be entitled. It refers to the discontent people feel when they compare their positions to others and realize that they have less of what they believe themselves to be entitled than those around them.
3 main types of stressors
catastrophes, significant life changes, daily hassles
health effects of people under stress
immune suppression and risk of illness also depression
What did Walter Cannon observe when he studied various kinds of stressors?
Stress response system is part of a unified mind-body system. He observed a cold, lack of oxygen and emotion-arousing events triggers outpouring stress hormones such as epinephrine and nonepinephrine the core of the adrenal glands. When they are alerted number of brain pathways, the sympathetic nervous system arous. He called this system fight or flight.
General adaptation syndorme
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases:
1. Alarm reaction- sympathetic nervous system is activated.
2.. Resistence- tempature, blood pressure and respiration are high. Adrenal glands pump hormones into the bloodstream
3. Exhaustion- volunerable to illness or even in extreme cases collapse and death.
The 9 year study Rosenman and Friedman and type A and B personality and the health risks for each?
Type A personality- Freidman and Rosenman's term for competitive. hard driving, impatient, verbally aggressive and angered -prone people.
Type B personality- term for easy going, relaxed people
The nine year study showed that 257 men suffered heart attacks ,but 69 percent were type A. Type B had suffered a heart attack.
Type A health risks included:
sympathetic nervous system redistributes bloodflow to our muscles
liver shuts down
excess of cholesterol and fat
heart disease or heart attack
Differerence between internal and external locus of control and example.
Internal locus of control- in charge of ourselves and our circumstances.
External locus of control- we picture that a force outside of ourselves controls our fate. That was meant to bem that was fate
An example for external locus of control is God
An example of an internal locus of control would be body, soul and spirit
A technique of meditation in which distracting thoughts, feelings are not ignored, but rather then acknowledged and observed and non-judgmental as they arise to create a detachment from them and gain insight and awareness. The benefits are lessen anxiety and depression
Famous psychologist and the three pillars of positive psychology
1.. emotion e.g. engagement
2. Character e.g. courage
3. groups, culture, institutions
You might also like...
Unit 8 Psychology Notes
AP Psychology Unit 4: Motivation, Emotion, and Str…
Motivation & Emotion test Vocab
Emotion and Motivation
Other sets by this creator
psych final therapy chapter
psych final disorders chapter
psych final personality chapter