Red Cross Lifeguarding

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What do you do if there is a lightning/thunder storm
-Clear everyone out of the water and to a safe place out of contact with water, plumbing, or electrical circuits on the FIRST sight/hearing
-keep patrons and staff out of showers and locker room during a storm due to the fact that water and metal can conduct elec.
- Do not use a telephone connected to a landline except in an emergency.
- keep everyone away from windows and metal obj.
-watch for more storms and monitor weather reports on a radio or TV &etc.
what do you do if there is a tornado?
-clear the water and surrounding area
-move everyone to the facility's EAP safe place
- keep everyone sway from windows, doors, and outside walls
-have everyone lie flat in a ditch or on a low section of ground if no shelter is available.
What do you do if there is high wind?
-clear pool/ water front if visibility is impaired by waves
- move patron/staff indoors
-secure equipment if it could be blown away and become dangerous, but only if it is safe to do so.
Common rules
-swim only when lifeguard is on duty
- swim diapers are required for small children or people with incontinence.
-no swimming with an open wound/infection
- obey lifeguard instructions at all times
- no running, pushing, or rough play
-no hyperventilation before going under water or breath holding contests.
-no sitting or playing near or with drains or suction fittings
-dive only in designated areas
- no glass containers in the pool area/locker room
- no alcoholic beverages or drugs use allowed
water park rules
-follow the min/max amount of people on an attraction at times
-max hight/age requirements in areas designated for small children
-follow winding river rules
Common rules for Equipment/Structures
- 1 person at a time on a ladder/attraction
-do not sit or hang on lifelines or lane lines
- do not climb on lifeguard chair
-Starting block are used only by swim team, or other wised told to via certain instuctors
EAP
emergency action plans
What are elements of effective surveillance?
-recognition of dangerous behaviors
-vicim recognition
-effective scanning
-zone of surveillance responsibility
-lifeguard stations
what are some dangerous behaviors to recognize?
-a weak swimmer who is:
* Bobbing
* Crawling hand-over-hand on the wall
*Beyond arm's reach of an supervising adult
*Clinging or struggling to grab something to stay afloat
* wearing a life jacket improperly
-a person who is:
*breath holding or swimming under water for a long period of time after hyperventilating
* participating in a high risk/impact activity (diving)
*experiencing a medical emergency
Recognition of swimmers in distress
they may be:
-unable to keep their face out of the water
- able to call for help
-able to wave for attention
-using something (noodle) to float
-floating, sculling, or treading water
Active drowning victims
-cannot call for help due to focused efforts on trying to get breath
-working to keep head above water in an attempt to breathe (small children may be face down to to heavy heads)
- has extended arms to sides or front, pressing down for support
-positioned vertically with no supporting kick
-not making forward progress in the water
-might continue to struggle under water
-eventually will lose consciousness (passive)
What are some causes of a sudden passive victim?
-heart attack/ stroke
-seizure
-head injury
-heart-related illness
-hypothermia
-hyperventilation and extended breath holding
Passive drowning victims
they maybe:
- floating face down at or near water surface or sink to the bottom
-limp or having convulsive-type movements
-no defined arms or leg action, no locomotion and no breathing
-can appear floating if at surface
- may be faced down, up, or to the side if at the bottom
*glare and reflection makes it harder to see passive-drowning victims under water.
Active drowning victim from the front
How to save an Active drowning victim from behind
Guideline for effective scanning
-scan all patrons in your assigned area of responsibility
-stay focused--do not let your attention drift
-Move your head while scanning to see all spots in your assigned area
-scan point to point throughly and repeatedly. Do not neglect any part of the assigned area, including the deck/beach and around the lifeguard station.
-Focus on effective patron surveillance instead of the scanning pattern itself.
-scan for sign of potential problems
-scan crowded and high-risk areas carefully
-pay close attention to non swimmers or weak swimmers. They might act carelessly.
-Maintain and active posture. Slouching, leaning back, or sitting back with legs crossed, or resting your hands on your head may cause to become too relaxed and lose focus.
-Adjust your body position or stand up to eliminate blind spots. Be aware of areas that are difficult to see to see a better view
-Change your position regularly to help stay alert.
-Don't get distracted; keep focused on your zone--not other activities out of your zone.
-Do not stop scanning an area if a patron asks a question or has a suggestion/concern. Acknowledge the them quickly and politely that you have to keep scanning, but are still listening, and answer them.
Scanning difficulties
-Monotony
-Fatigue
-Distractions
-Blind spots
-glare
-water movement
-murky water
-many patrons in water
-low patron loads
-high air temperature
How do you tell a patron to stop doing something dangerous?
-get their attention
-explain the hazard or danger. They usually understand when they know something is dangerous
-tell them the safe option
Areas to note for young children
-Older children might be too big, or too rough for younger children
-toddlers might fall down and might not be able to lift themselves up.
-children can get lost, so remind adults to supervise their children at all times
-watch to make sure young children don't pee or poop in the pool
-Children mat be overly exposed to the sun or hypothermia, immediately form the parents/guardian
to note for guarding play structures
-do not let a play structure become over crowded
-do not let patrons swim under neath the structure
-make sure the patrons come to the surface of the water after they dropping into the water
-look out for children around sprays/fountains/&etc. because they may fall down
-pay close attention to patriots in moving water because it may make them fall and not be able to get up again
-watch out for overcrowding or horse play on the structures
- keep play safe and orderly
Guarding Special Rides and Attractions
-watch patrons exit and enter an attraction
-carefully watch both the water below and the activities overhead
-keep patrons in view as long as possible
-ensure patrons who submerge to the surface
-be aware of special risks. Some structures may pose as hazards
Guarding water slides
At the Top
-check that patrons are tall enough to use the slides by using a measuring pole or line on a wall
-instruct riders how to ride the slide according to manufacturer's instructions and facility protocols and make sure they are in the correct riding position
-instruct riders not to stop on the slide
-help riders with the equipment
-confirm that the riders are ready to go and signal them to start
-if assisting riders to take off, use tube handles when available. avoid pushing or pulling riders by their shoulders, arms or legs
-dispatch the rider(s) at the proper intervals. for drop-off slides, speed slides and free-fall slides, ensure that the previous rider has left the runout end of the slide or the catch pool and the lifeguard at the bottom as signaled for the next rider
-if you can see the lifeguard at the bottom, he or she can use a hand signal or whistle
-if you cannot see the lifeguard at the bottom, a mechanical system, such as light signals, can be used
At the Middle-watch for riders who
- Stop, slow down, stand up, or form a chain
-Lose their mat, tube or raft or having trouble getting down the slide
-Hit their heads on the side of the slide
*Alert the dispatcher or lifeguard at the end of the slide of the situation and assist patrons as necessary
At the Bottom of the slide
-Observe all riders exiting the slide in the catch pool. Patrons might not realize the depth of the catch pool and may need assistance
-Assist riders who appear to be off balance or get caught underwater in the strong downward flow of water in the catch pool. This strong force can knock a person or non-swimmer under water.
-Help riders, if needed, from the runout or catch pool. Some patrons might be disoriented or frightened from the ride
-Ensure that riders do not cross in front of any slide when getting out of the runout or catch pool
-Signal the lifeguard at the top when each rider has moved out of the catch pool or runout and it is clear to send the next rider
Guarding Winding Rivers
-Ensure that patrons enter and exit at designated locations
-Watch for inexperienced swimmers falling off their inner tubes or inflatable rafts. It will be difficult for you to see all patrons or the bottom of the winding river if there are a lot of tubes and rafts in the water. Similarly, it can be difficult for someone who falls off a raft or tube to come up for air if the surface is blocked. In addition, someone who is hit by an inflatable raft might be knocked down, hit in the bottom and get into trouble
-Watch for patrons around features in winding rivers, such as fountains and waterfalls, which can catch patrons off-guard or cause patrons to gather
-Watch carefully for , and correct, risky behavior
Guarding Wave pools
-Ensure that patrons enter only in the shallow end
-When waves are one, stand up to get a better view of patrons
-Watch for swimmers who get knock over by the waves or carried into deeper water by the undercurrent. Inexperienced swimmers might go to where that break because of the excitement
-Do not let patrons dive into the waves or dive through inner tubes
-Keep the areas around ladders and railing clear so that patrons can exit the pool quickly
-Keep other swimmers out of the pool during special activities, like surfing. The surfboards or boogie boards in the wave pool can present a hazard to others
-Before performing an emergency rescue, turn the waves off using the emergency stop (E-stop) button at the lifeguard chair
-Rotate positions only when the waves are off
Guarding Organized Recreational swim groups
-Ensure that swimming areas are divided according to swimmers' abilities and are clearly marked
-Ensure that patrons stay in the sections appropriate for their swimming abilities. Be aware that weak or non-swimmers, excited to be together enjoying a recreational activity, may attempt to venture into areas that are beyond their swimming abilities
-Provide U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets for weak or non-swimmers
-Know how to identify group leaders or chaperones
-Ensure that chaperones are actively supervising the members of their group and that the appropriate swimmer-to-chaperone ratio is met. If it appears that they are not doing so, alert your facility's manager
Strategies for Safe Group Visits
-Booking procedure
-Safety orientation
-Classification of swimming abilities
-Designation of swimming areas
-Identification of group leaders or adult chaperones
-Supplemental group strategies
General procedures for a water emergency
-enter water, if necessary
-preform appropriate rescue
-move the victim to a safe exit point
-remove victim from water
-provide emergency care as needed
-report, advise and release
simple assist
-approach the victim while keeping the rescue tube between you and the victim
-reach across the tube and grasp the victim at the armpit to help the person maintain their balance
-assist to exit if necessary
reaching from the deck
-extend your tube to the victim, keeping your body weight on the back foot and crouch, and remove your rescue strap
-tell them to grab the tube
-slowly pull them to safety
Active victim from the front rescue
-approach victim from the front
-as you near him, grab the tube from under your arms with both hands and begin to push the tube out in front of you. Continue kicking to maintain momentum
-thrust the tube slightly under the water and into the victim's chest, tell him to hold on
-keep kicking, fully extending your arms and move the victim to a safe exit point.
active victim rear rescue
-approach the victim from behind with the rescue tube across your chest.
-with both arms, reach under his armpits and grasp the shoulders firmly. Tell the victim that you are there to help and continue to reassure through out the rescue
-using your chest, squeeze the rescue tube between your chest and the victim's upper back
-keep your head to one side to avoid being hit by the victim's head
-lean back and pull the victim onto the rescue tube.
-use the tube to support the victim so that the victim's mouth and nose are out of the water
-tow the victim to a safe exit point
passive victim rear rescue
-approach a face-down victim from behind with the rescue tube across your chest
-with both arms, reach under the victim's armpits and grasp the shoulders firmly. You may be high on the victim's back when doing this
-using your chest, squeeze the tube between your chest and the victim's back
- keep your head to one side to avoid getting hit by his head
-roll the victim over by dipping your shoulders and rolling onto your back so that the victim is faced up onto of the tube. Keep the mouth and nose out of water. Place the tube under the victim below the shoulders so the victim's head falls naturally back to an open air way.`
-tow the victim to a safety exit point
-remove from water using a back board and assess his medical needs
submerged victim in deep water
-preform a feet fist surface dive, positioning yourself behind the victim
-reach one arm under the victim's arm and across his chest. Hold firmly onto the victim's opposite side
-reach up with your free hand and grasp the towline. pull it down and place it in the same hand holding the victim
-keep pulling the towline this way until nearing the surface
-as you surface, tilt the victim's head back so he is faced up. Grasp and position the rescue tube so it is squeezed between your chest and his back.
-reach your free arm over the tube and under the victim's armpit. Grasp his shoulder firmly.
-Move your other arm from across the victim and grasp the victim's shoulder firmly
-Tow the victim to a safe exit point.
in water ventilations
- ensure that the rescue tube is placed under the victim so the his airway falls into a open position
-from behind the victims head, position the assembled resuscitation mask. Give ventilations
- remove victim from the water as soon as conditions allow, then immediately resume providing care
Steps to take when you are exposed to bloodborne pathogen:
-clean the contaminated area throughly with soap and water. Wash injuries, cuts and exposed skin.
-if you are splashed with blood or other potentially infectious material around your mouth and nose, slush the area with water
-if your eyes are involved, irrigate them with clean water, saline or sterile irrigants for 20 minutes
-report the exposer incident to EMS when they take over the victim
-document what happened, including time and date of the exposure
-seek immediate follow-up care as identified in your facility exposure control plan
General Procedure for injury/sudden illness on land
-size up the scene
-preform a primary assessment
- summons EMS, if needed
-Preform a secondary assessment, if no life-threatening conditions are found
-provide care for the conditions found
-report, advise and release
Size-up the scene
-use your senses to check for hazards
-determine what caused the injury or the nature of the illness
-determine the number of injured or ill victims
-determine what additional help may be needed
-put on the appropriate PPE
LOC
level of consciousness
SAMPLE
S-Signs and Symptoms
A-Allergies
M-Medication
P-Pertinent past medical history
L-Last oral intake
E-events leading up to the incident
PPE
Personal Protective Equipment
if there is no breathing or pulse (adult)
preform CPR
if not breathing but there is a pulse (adult)
give 1 ventilation every 5 seconds for 2 minutes, unless status changes
if there is severe bleeding and the victim is breathing (adult)
provide first aid for the bleeding
if unconscious but breathing (adult)
leave in a faced-up position
when do you put the victim in the HAINES position?
-if you are alone and must leave the victim (to call for help)
-if you cannot maintain an open and clear airway because of fluids/vomit
Child and Infant
-check for responsiveness (tap child on shoulder, infant on foot)
-if no response, summon EMS personnel
-open the airway and check for breathing and a pulse for 10 sec
-if no breathing, give 2 ventilations. each ventilation should last about 1 sec and make the chest clearly rise
-quickly scan for bleeding
-provide care as needed
if no breathing or pulse (child/infant)
preform CPR
if no breathing, but there is a pulse (child/infant)
give 1 ventilation about every 3 seconds
if there is severe bleeding and victim is breathing (child/infant)
provide first aid for bleeding
if unconscious but breathing (child/infant)
-leave victim in face up position
how do you move a victim with a suspected head/neck injury without a back board?
-drag them by their clothes
*postion on back
*kneel behind victim's head and gather the victim's clothing behind hi/her neck
* pull the victim to saftley, cradling the victim's head with his/her clothes and tour hands
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