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Describes what children do in the normal development process of speech to simplify standard adult productions.


substitution of an alveolar phoneme for a labial or linguadental phoneme
[/don/ for bone]

Assimilation (Harmony)

alteration of a consonant phoneme that is influenced by, and becomes more like, a surrounding phoneme
[/genk/ for thank]


substitution of a more posteriorly produced phoneme for an anteriorly produced phoneme
[/bok/ for boat]

Cluster Reduction

reduction of a cluster to a singleton
[/pen/ for plane]


substitution of a single phoneme that is different from tow adjacent target phoneme yet takes on features of the target
[/fok/ for smoke]


substitution of a fricative for an affricate phoneme
[/ʃɪp/ for chip]


substitution of a homorganic stop (similar place of articulation) for a nasal phoneme
[/do/ for no]


substitution of an alveolar fricative or affricate for a palatal fricative or affricate
[/fɪs/ for fish]


addition of /i/ or consonant + /i/
[/lɛgi/ for leg]


repetition of a word
[/gogo/ for go]


insertion of a new phoneme
[/bəlu/ for blue]

Final Consonant Deletion

deletion of the final consonant
[/pu/ for pool]


substitution of a more anteriorly produced phoneme
[/su/ for shoe]


substitution of a glide for a liquid
[/pwey/ for play]

Initial Consonant Deletion

deletion of the initial singleton consonant
[/ul/ for pool]


substitution of a labial phoneme produced with the tip of the tongue
[/bɔg/ for dog]

Metathesis (Spoonerism)

transposition of two phonemes
[/lɪkstɪp/ for lipstick]


repetition of a complete or incomplete syllable
[/wawa/ for water]


substitution of a stop for a fricative or affricate
[/top/ for soap]

Stridency Deletion

ommission of a strident or the substitution of a non-strident consonant
[/op/ for soap]

Unstressed Syllable Deletion

deletion of an unstressed syllable
[/markwev/ for microwave]

Voicing or Devoicing

alteration in voicing influenced bu a surrounding phoneme
[/beg/ for bake]

Vocalization (Vowelization)

substitution of a vowel for a liquid phoneme in the final position
[/pipo/ for people]

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