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31 terms

Human Geography 3

activity space
The area within which people move freely on their rounds of regular activity
awareness space
Locations or places about which an individual has knowledge even without visiting all of them; includes activity space and additional areas newly encountered or about which one acquires information
chain migration
The process by which migration movements from a common home area to a specific destination are sustained by links of friendship or kinship between first movers and later followers.
channelized migration
The tendency for migration to flow between areas that are socially and economically allied by past migration patterns, by economic and trade connections, or by some other affinity.
The actual of potential relationship of two places or regions that each produce different goods or services for which the other has an effective demand, resulting in an exchange between the locales.
counter migration
(syn: return migration) The return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
critical distance
The distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or means play a determining role in the willingness of people to travel.
distance decay
The declining intensity of any activity, process or function with increasing distance from its point of origin.
friction of distance
A measure of the retarding or restricting effect of distance on spatial interaction. Generally, the greater the distance, the greater the "friction" and the less the interaction or exchange, or the greater the cost of achieving the exchange.
gravity model
A mathematical prediction of the interaction between two bodies as a function of their size and of the distance separating them. Henry C. Carey adapted Newton's formulation to demonstrate the theoretical interaction between two cities.
intervening opportunity
The concept that closer opportunities will materially reduce the attractiveness of interaction with more distant - even slightly better - alternatives; a closer alternative source of supply between a demand point and the original source of supply.
law of retail gravitation
Reilly's Law
The permanent (or relatively permanent) relocation of an individual or group to a new, usually distant, place of residence and employment.
the movement of people in a population, as from place to place, from job to job, or from one social class or level to another.
movement bias
Any aggregare control on or regularity of movement of people, commodities, or communication. Included are distance bias, direction bias, and network bias.
The areal pattern of sets of places and the routes (links) connecting them, along which movement can take place.
personal communication field
An area defined by the distribution of an individual's short-range informal communications. The size and shape of the field are defined by work, recreation, school, and other regular contacts and are affected by age, sex, employment, and other personal characteristics.
personal space
An invisible, usually irregular area around a person into which he or she does not willingly admit others. The sense ( and extent) of personal space is a situational and cultural variable.
place perception
The acquisition of information about a place or thing through sensory means; the subjective organization and interpretation of acquired information in light of cultural attitudes and individual preferences or experiences.
place utility
1.In human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction or approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes. 2: In economic geography, the value imparted to goods or services by tertiary activities that provide things needed in specific markets.
potential model
A measurement of the total interaction opportunities available under gravity model assumptions to a center in a multi-center system.
pull factor
Characteristics of a locale that act as attractive forces, drawing migrants from other regions.
push factor
Unfavorable characteristics of a locale that contribute to the dissatisfaction of its residents and impel their emigration.
Reilly's law
Also know as the law of retail gravitation; the proposition by William J. Reilly that the breaking point or boundary marking the outer edge of either of two cities' trade area is located by the expression...
return migration
counter migration
return of migrants to the regions from which they earlier emigrated
space-time prism
A diagram of the volume of space and the length of time within which our activities are confined by constraints of our bodily needs (eating, resting) and the means of mobility at our command.
spatial interaction
The movement ( e.g. of people, goods, information ) between different places; an indication of interdependence between different geographic locations or areas.
spatial search
The process by which individuals evaluate the alternative locations to which they might move.
step migration
A migration in which an eventual long-distance relocation is undertaken in stages as, for example, from farm to village to small town to city.
An individual or group attempt to identify and establish control over a clearly defined territory considered partially or wholly an exclusive domain; the behavior associated with the defense of the home territory.
Acceptable costs of a spatial exchange: the cost of moving a commodity relative to the ability of the commodity to bear the cost.