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Chapter 3&4 Exploration and Colonization
Terms in this set (37)
Last ruling Incan emperor of Peru. Executed by the Spanish (Pizarro)
Atlantic Slave Trade
Lasted from 16th century until the 19th century. Trade of African peoples from Western Africa to the Americas. One part of a three-part economical system known as the MIddle Passage of the Triangular Trade.
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean
an economic system in which all or most of the factors of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for profit
He mistakenly discovered the Americas in 1492 while searching for a faster route to India.
territories controlled by other countries, a group of people who leave their native country to form in a new land a settlement subject to, or connected with, the parent nation.
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish and direct trade throughout Asia. Richer and more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English and Established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt and being bought out by the British
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. (479)
favorable Balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
A spanish explorer who traveled to Peru in 1532/ Defeated the Incas and colonized the area
Spanish conquistador who led the expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the King of Castile, in the early 16th century. Cortés
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
a person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
Chief of the Aztec who could not resist Cortez
group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
an instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
triangular sails and steering rudder allowed captains to steer into the wind
a general and progressive increase in prices
The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
King of Spain who agreed to finance Christopher Columbus's expedition to the Americas in 1492
King Louis XIV
French king known as the Sun King. Reigned from 1643 to 1715
compass based on an indicator (as a magnetic needle) that points to the magnetic north
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century.
Pope Alexander VI
Granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
Queen of spain who gave colombus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world
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