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APUSH Chapter 13-22 The American Pageant 13th Edition

The American Pageant 13th Edition
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Andrew Jackson
"Old Hickory" (by his troops because of his toughness). He was a democratic republican and one of the 4 candidates in the 1824 presidential elections, he was from Tennessee and got most popular votes and most electoral votes. John Q. Adam's supporters called Jackson's mother a prostitute and he an adulterer, after he was elected his wife Rachel died which he blamed on Adam's supporters. He personified the west as he was president and an anti-federalist. He believed in the strength of the Union and the authority of the federal government over the state government. He lost the 1824 elections but won the 1828 elections. On several occasions he ignored the Supreme Court and used the veto 12 times. He opposed the Bank of the US and it as a conspiracy to keep the common man economically down and get the rich richer. He was for the common people. In 1832 he ran for president, again and won. In 1836 the Bank of the US had died.
John C. Calhoun
was against the Tariff of 1828, he was a vice president for both Adam's and Jackson
Henry Clay
one of the 4 candidates in the election of 1824, from Kentucky. He was the Speaker of the House and author of "American System." He was eliminated in the election; he hated Jackson and supported John Q. Adam's in his election. He proposed a compromise bill that would gradually reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over a period of eight years
Martin Van Buren
first president born in America but lacked the support of the democrats and Jackson's popularity
Sam Houston
led the Texans (among them Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie) who resented the "foreign" government. He led his army for 37 days eastward, he turned on the Mexicans and captured Santa Anna
John Quincy Adams
one of the 4 candidates in the election of 1824, he came in second to Jackson. He was a man puritanical honor and won with respect rather than to boast. He was president from 1824-1828. He could never gain the support of the Americans because he was a minority president. He was in favor of the construction of roads and canals, proposed a national university, and advocated an astronomical observatory. He appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him. He was essentially chosen by the House of Representatives
Daniel Webster
supported the Tariff of 1828
Denmark Vesey
a free Black, led an ominous (threatening) slave rebellion in Charleston. This caused southern whites to a tighten of control over slaves
Nicolas Biddle
led the Bank of the US and was harsh upon the western "wildcat" banks. He slyly lent US funds to friends, and often used money of the Bank of the US to bribe people, like the press. Jackson tried to kill the Bank of the US and withdrew federal funds from the bank, to drain it of its wealth; Biddle reacted by calling for unnecessary loans, causing a small panic
Tariff of 1832
Tariff of 1828=tariff as high as 45% on raw materials such as wool; Congress, in response to the "Tariff of Abominations" passed the Tariff of 1832 which lowered the 1828 tariff by 10% to 35%, but southerners still hated it. In the 1832 elections the tariff was to be voided in South Carolina boundaries
Specie Circular
debts must be paid off in specie (gold or silver), which no one had
Tariff of 1833
"the compromise tariff;" the tariff of 1832 were to be lowered about 10% over 8 years so that by 1842 the rates would be 20-25%.
"Trail of Tears"
The US Army forcibly removed about 15,000 Cherokees from their ancestral homelands in the southeastern US and marched them to Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma). Freezing weather and inadequate food supplies led to unspeakable suffering, and some 4,000 Cherokees died on the 116-day journey
Panic of 1837
caused by "wildcat banks" loans, the over-speculation, the "Bank War," and the specie circular
Force Bill
"Bloody Bill" authorized president to use the army and navy to collect tariffs
Nullification
to void, abolish
Spoils system
rewarded supporters with good positions in office and denied many able people a chance to contribute
"pet banks"
also called "wildcat banks;" degrading term for state banks
Whig Party
hated Jackson, supported active government programs and reforms, mocked as being "an organized incompatibility."
"King Caucus"
process of choosing a candidate for political party for elections
Anti-Masonic Party
Opposed the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic order. Became potent political force in New York, and spread its influence throughout the mid Atlantic and New England states. Appealed to long-standing American suspicions of secret societies, which they condemned as citadels of privilege and monopoly. They were also an anti-Jackson party because Jackson himself was a Mason.
"King Mob"
conservatives called Jackson this and betrayed him
"corrupt bargain"
an alleged deal between presidential candidates John Q. Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adam's favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually got the majority of the votes in 1824
Tariff of Abominations
southerners called the Tariffs of 1828 this
"South Carolina Exposition"
Calhoun secretly wrote "The South Carolina Exposition" in 1828, boldly blaming the tariff and calling for nullification of the tariff by all states
"Revolution of 1828"
Election running candidates were Adams and Andrew Jackson; increased turn out of waters proved the common people had the vote and used it
Maysville Road
road built within Kentucky and was considered an individual state road
Samuel Slater
"Father of the Factory System," he learned of the textile machinery when working a British factory. He was aided by Moses Brown when he escaped to the US and built the 1st cotton thread spinner in the U.S. located in Pawtucket, Rhode Island (1791). He started the idea of child labor in the US.
Cyrus McCormick
: invented the mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grain. His invention greatly increased the rate of production from Western farms and required less labor, expanding Western agriculture. In 1834 he put a patent on it and created a company that manufactured the reaper and sold it on the market.
Eli Whitney
built a cotton gin, which was 50x more effective than separating cotton seeds by hand (for the South). In 1850 he introduced machine-made inter-changeable parts on muskets (for the North).
Carl Schurz: contributed to the elevation of the US political scene
Robert Fulton
in 1807 he invented the first steamboat, the Clermont, by the 1830s steamboats were common. While being able to travel upstream it also contributed to an increase in US trade and development of Southern and Western economies
Samuel F. B. Morse
He was a poor portrait painter who invented the telegraph. In 1844, he strung a wire 40 miles from Washington to Boston and tapped out, "What hath God wrought?" He brought distantly separated people in almost instant communication, this revolutionized communication and business in America.
DeWitt Clinton
governor of New York who lead the building of the Erie Canal, also known as "Clinton's Big Ditch," it connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River in 1825; it decreased the expense and time of transportation; cities grew along the canal and food prices lowered
Catherine Beecher
she urged women to teach, nurse, and do house work
Industrial revolution
major change in agriculture production and in transportation and communication.
Limited liability
can't lose more than invested, stimulated economy
Transportation revolution
revolution wanted to link the West with the rest of the nation; roads, canals, steamboats linked the nation; South largely relied on its river.
Nativism
"nativists," older Americans who were prejudiced to newcomers in jobs, politics, and religion; opposed immigration; suspicious of Germans. Newcomers were generally uneducated, poor, Irish Catholic, and willing to work for almost nothing.
Cult of domesticity
idealized view of women and home; women were self-less caregivers for children and a refuge (shelter) for husbands
Cotton gin
invented by Eli Whitney, was more effected than separating cotton by hand.
Clermont
Robert Fulton's first steam boat.
Boston Associates
15 Boston families formed an investment capital company, Boston Associates; eventually they dominated textile, railroad, insurance, and banking business of Massachusetts.
Clipper ships
Donald McKay them, for a short time they dominated the seas (they were very fast, sleek, and long). Able to transport small amounts of items in a shorter amounts of time, hauled cargo to foreign nations (mainly China), used steam
Ancient Order of Hibernians
aided the Irish; the Irish mainly came to New York (Boston), "Black Forties," they were illiterate, discriminated by older Americans, and got lowest paying jobs (railroad building), they were hated by Protestants because of being Catholic, NINA (No Irish Need Apply), fought jobs with blacks, gradually the Irish became educated and attracted to politics, "Twisting the Lion's Tail"
"Molly Maguires"
Irish miners' union who engaged in violent confrontations with Pennsylvania mining companies in the 1860s and 70s.
Pony Express
carried mail from Missouri to California, went 2,000 miles in 10 days; it only lasted 2 years and was replaced by the telegraph wire.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
1842, the Supreme Court of Massachusetts ruled that labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "honorable and peaceful."
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
also known as Know Nothing Party; secret society, always answered inquiries with "I know nothing," advocated for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers.
Sewing Machine
Invented in 1846 by Elias Howe & Issac Singer, it was the foundation of the clothing industry
Dorothea Dix
A New England teacher, who advocated for better conditions for the mentally ill, reported on the treatment of the insane and conditions in asylums; in 1843 she petition the Massachusetts legislature, gaining improved treatment and conditions for the mentally ill.
Horace Mann
of Brown University who became secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education and campaigned for school reforms, among which were better schoolhouses, longer terms, higher pay for educators, and expanded curriculum. Known as "Father of Public Education"
Peter Cartwright
One of the leading preachers of the 2nd Great Awakening, best known of the Methodist "circuit riders" or traveling frontier preachers, had a bellowing voice and flailing arms, knocked out rowdies at his sermons
Walt Whitman
wrote Leaves of Grass (poetry) and was "Poet Laureate of Democracy;" known for his unconventional style and frank dealings with topics such as human sexuality, encouraged people to live life to the fullest and holler out a "barbaric yawp"
Susan B. Anthony
Quaker-raised lecturer for women's rights and one of the most conspicuous leaders of the movement, so much so that progressive women everywhere came to be nicknamed after her, called "Suzy Bs."
Ralph Waldo Emerson
former Unitarian pastor who turned into a writer and lyceum speaker; "The American Scholar" was an intellectual declaration of independence urging American writers to throw off European traditions; stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, self-confidence, optimism and freedom
Henry David Thoreau
close friend of Emerson, he is best known for his prose work "Walden", as well as his essay "On the Duty of Civil Disobedience," his writings influenced Gandhi and MLK Jr. He was a nonconformist, transcendentalist; condemned government for supporting slavery; refused to pay Massachusetts poll tax and jailed overnight.
Charles G. Finney
greatest revival preacher who led massive revivals in Rochester, NY. Invented the "anxious bench", where sinners were to sit in full view of the congregation. Served as president of Oberlin College in Ohio
William H. McGuffy
teacher and preacher who published a series of grade-school readers in the 1830s, selling 122 million copies
Joseph Smith
1830; founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), he claimed to have received his doctrine on golden plates from an angel in NY.
John Humphrey Noyes
Utopian socialist who formed the Oneida Community in 1848
American Temperance Society
formed in Boston (1826), the "Cold Water Army" (children), signed pledges, made pamphlets, and an anti-alcohol novel emerged called 10 nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There
Shakers
led by Mother Ann Lee in 1770s, it was a religious sect., prohibited marriage and sexual relations it was extinct by 1940
Maine Law
(1851) which prohibited making and sale of liquor, called law of Heaven Americanized
Unitarianism
religious movement that began in England at the end of the 1700s, insisting that God was only one person and denying Jesus, embraced by leading philosophers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson. It appealed to mostly intellectuals; stressed the essential goodness of human nature-people were good at heart, not born under original sin; people saved through good works not through faith in Christ.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revivals that started in 1801 that encouraged a culture of evangelicalism responsible for an upswing in prison reform, the temperance cause, the feminist movement, and abolition
Hudson River School
founded by Thomas Cole, it was an art school that specialized in romantic paintings of local landscapes, many scenes of NY Hudson River were painted.
Knickerbocker group
group in NY that wrote literature and enabled America to boast for the first time of a literature that matched its magnificent landscapes; Washington Irving, James F. Cooper, and William Cullen Bryant
Burned Over District
western NY called this because many descendants of New England Puritans had settled; blistered by sermonizing preaching "hellfire and damnation"
Declaration of Sentiments
was written in the spirit of the Declaration of Independence saying that "all men and women are created equal"
Transcendentalism
Puritan theology; New England intellectual movement that began to challenge ways of thinking; stressed the relationship between human beings and nature, spiritual things over material things, and the importance of the individual conscience
Millerites
Adventists; predicted Christ to return to earth on Oct 22, 1844. When this prophesy failed to happen, the movement lost belief.
Deism
Philosophical/religious group that relied on reason rather than revelation; relied on science than the Bible; rejected concept of original sin and denied Christ's divinity; believed in a Supreme being who created a universe and humans with ability to have morals
Mormons
drilled a militia to protect their controversial polygamist sect, they moved west under Young's leadership and settled in Utah in 1848. Smith was accused of polygamy (having more than one wife)
Harriet Beecher Stowe
wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin, which advocated the abolition of slavery and intensified sectional conflict
William Lloyd Garrison
Avid abolitionist that fought against slavery for moral reasons; created the Anti-Slavery Society. argued for immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves and founded "The Liberator". In a sense he started the Civil War with words and demanded the "virtuous" North secede from the "wicked" South
Denmark Vesey
a free black who led an ill-fated rebellion in Charleston in 1822. Him and more than 30 of his followers were publicly hanged
David Walker
wrote "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World" in 1829, advocating a bloody end to white supremacy, slave revolts
Nat Turner
was a visionary black preacher, who in 1831, led a slave uprising in which 60 Virginians, mostly women and children, were killed
Sojourner Truth
black abolitionist, a freed woman in New York who fought tirelessly for black emancipation and women's rights.
Theodore Dwight Weld
a prominent abolitionist who was evangelized by Charles Grandison Finney. Self-educated and simple in both manner and speech, he appealed to his rural audiences of untutored farmers. Expelled from Lane Theological along with several other students in 1834 for organizing an 18 day debate on slavery. Weld and his "Lane Rebels" spread across the Old Northwest preaching the antislavery gospel. He wrote a pamphlet, American Slavery As It Is (1839), which greatly influenced Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin
Fredrick Douglass
a former slave who escaped from slavery in 1838. He became one of the greatest black abolitionists, gifted with eloquent speech and self-educated. In 1841 he was "discovered" as a great abolitionist to give antislavery speeches. He swayed many people to see that slavery was wrong by publishing "Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass" which depicted his struggle to learn to read and write because of being the son of a black slave woman and a white father
Elijah P. Lovejoy
from Alton, Illinois; he was not content to assail slavery and criticized the chastity of Catholic women. His printing press was destroyed 4 times , and in 1837 he was killed by a mob and became the "martyr abolitionist."
Abolitionism
freeing of blacks
"positive good"
Southerners began to organize a campaign stating about slavery's positive good, conveniently forgetting about how their previous doubts about "peculiar institution's" (slavery's) morality
Cotton Kingdom
term in the South that emphasized its economic dependence on a single staple product
The Liberator
an antislavery newspaper published by William Lloyd Garrison in Boston in 1831, Garrison triggered a 30 year war of words
Mulattoes
In the South, this term referred to mixed black and white people (usually a black mother and white father) and were freed when their masters died.
American Anti-Slavery Society
strongly abolitionist society was founded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists such as Wendell Phillips. Garrison burned a copy of the U.S. Constitution, condemning it as a proslavery document
Peculiar institution
term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War
Liberty Party
the first antislavery political party, organized in 1839 and joined with the Free Soil party in 1848
Gag resolution
this was passed through Congress in 1836 and it required all an antislavery appeals to be stopped without debate
American Colonization Society
organization founded in 1817 by antislavery reformers that called for gradual emancipation and removal of freed blacks to Africa
Cotton gin
Eli Whitney's invention that made the wide scale cultivation short-staple cotton possible
"black belt"
1860, most slaves were concentrated in the "black belt" of the Deep South that stretched from South Carolina and Georgia into the new southwest states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. This was the region of the southern frontier
Hillbillies
Some of the poorest were known as "poor white trash," "hillbillies" and "clay-eaters" and were described as listless(no energy), shiftless(lazy), and misshapen(deformed).
John Tyler
took over for Harrison when he died, President favored states rights; critical of American System and economic nationalism; vetoed creation of third national bank; supported cheap land purchasing in west and western expansionist goals; wanted Texas in union; opposed Whig party
John Slidell
Polk dispatched John Slidell to Mexico City as minister late in 1845 and was instructed to offer a maximum of $25 million for California and territory to the east but the Mexican people didn't accept, thus "snubbing" him
Winfield Scott
US general who was a hero of the War of 1812; led American troops into Mexico City; defeated Santa Anna in the Mexican War
Zachary Taylor
"Old Rough and Ready," a general he fought into Mexico, reaching Buena Vista and repelled 20,000 Mexicans with only 5,000 men, instantly becoming a hero became the "Hero of Buena Vista."
Nicholas P. Trist
Polk sent him to Mexico to negotiate an armistice (truce) at a $10k cost; also negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo on Feb. 2, 1848 which gave America territory from Texas to CA that was North of the Rio Grande (Mexican Cession lands), US only had to pay $15mil., in essence US forced Mexico to "sell" the Mexican Cession lands
James K. Polk
11th U.S. President, led the country during the Mexican war and sought to expand the US
Stephen W. Kearney
led 17,00 troops from Leavenworth to Santa Fe, secured CA for US
Robert Gray
in 1792 had stumbled upon the majestic Columbia River, and the famed Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804-1806 had ranged overland through the Oregon Country to the Pacific
John C. Fremont
helped to overthrow Mexican rule in 1846, he collaborated with American naval officers with the local Americans
Manifest Destiny
this expression was popular in the 1840s; many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean; this philosophy drove the acquisition of territory
Fiscal Bank
went on the same path as the two Banks of the US; seemed the word fiscal in the title gave the idea that it would overcome some of the popular objections to the establishment of a third great national bank.; president vetoed it in 1841 on alleged constitutional grounds; ended all serious attempts to create a great national bank
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
gave Britain Halifax-Quebec route for a road while America got a bit more land north of Maine.
"spot" resolutions
group of politicians wanted to know where exactly was the spot of the fighting before committing to war; among them was Abraham "Spotty" Lincoln because of his "Spot Resolution."
Tariff of 1842
"Black Tariff," protection tariff reverse the effects of the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
"conscience" Whigs
antislavery Whigs, "Mexican Whigs," in Congress denouncing this "damnable war" with increasing heat; having secure control of the House in 1847, they threatened o vote down supplies for the armies in the field
Bear Flag Revolt
Fremont led a revolt against Mexico by American settlers in California who declared the territory an independent republic
Caroline
American steamer that carried supplies to the insurgents across the Niagara River; attacked by British force and set on fire
Hudson's Bay Company
important colonizing agency; trading profitable with the Indians of the Pacific Northwest for furs
Creole
American ship captured by 130 rebel Virginia slaves, offered asylum by British officials in the Bahamas
Liberty Party
anti-Texas Liberty party, by spoiling Clay's chances and helping ensure the election of pro-Texas Polk, hurried the annexation(joining) of Texas
"all of Mexico"
all of Mexico
Aroostook War
Maine lumberjacks camped along the Aroostook River in Maine (1839) tried to oust Canadian rivals; militia were called in from both sides until the Webster Ashburn-Treaty was signed, took place in disputed territory.
Walker Tariff
1846, a tariff-for-revenue bill that reduced the rates of Tariff of 1842 from 32% to 25%; proved to be an excellent revenue producer, because it was followed by boom times and heavy imports to US
Wilmot Proviso
stated that any of the Mexican Cession territories that were taken from Mexico are to be slave-free; amendment was passed twice by the House but it never got passed the Senate
Lewis Cass
veteran of War of 1812, candidate for presidency, supported slavery
Stephan A. Douglas
"Little Giant," wanted to break the North-South deadlock over westward expansion; proposed the Territory of Nebraska be cut into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty; Kansas would be presumed to be a slave state, while Nebraska would be a free state.
Franklin Pierce
tried to be another Polk; Democrats candidate for pres.; supported the finality of everything, including the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Law
Zachary Taylor
Defeated at Rio Grande in Mexican-American War; Whigs nominated his as the hero of Buena Vista in the Mexican War; was 12th president; subdued to "higher law," vetoed every compromise sent from Congress; died in 1850 to intestinal disorder and Fillmore took over
John C. Calhoun
S. Carolina Senator; wanted states' rights, slavery to be left as is, return of runaway slaves, restoration of the rights of the South as a minority, and return for political balance
Winfield Scott
"Old Fuss and Feathers," veteran of the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War
Mathew C. Perry
marched into Tokyo harbor in 1854 and asked/coerced/forced them to open their nation; his Treaty of Kanagawa formerly opened Japan, broke Japan's isolation and they began to modernize, imperialize and militarize
Harriet Tubman
freed more than 300 slaves during 19 trips to the South via Underground Railroad
William H. Seward
against concession and hated slavery; said Christian legislators must adhere to "higher law" and not allow slavery to exist
James Gadsden
Jefferson Davis appointed him minister to Mexico; Gadsden Purchase (1853) would buy an area of Mexico from Santa Anna for $10mil. which the railroad would pass for the Southerners through the South
Henry Clay
senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852; strong supporter of American System, war hawk for the War of 1812, speaker of House of Representatives, known as "The Great Compromiser;" outlined the Compromise of 1850 with five main points, but died before it was passed
Millard Fillmore
took over Zachary Taylor as president; signed Compromise of 1850
Popular sovereignty
the sovereign people of a territory should determine if it was of slavery or not; popular among politicians because it was a comfortable compromise between the abolitionists and the slaver-holders
Free Soil Party
against expansion of slavery in the territories, also advocated federal aid for internal improvements and urged free government homesteads for settlers; argued that with slavery wage labor would wither away and along with the chance for the American worker to own property
Fugitive Slave Law
enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners; the North was lax about enforcing the law in 1793, which irritated the South, in 1850 the law had gotten stricter and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad. who aided slaves trying to escape were subject to fines and jail time
"conscience" Whigs
against slavery on moral grounds
"personal liberty laws"
denied local jails to federal officials, restricted enforcement
Underground Railroad
system that helped enslaved blacks follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North; "stations"= anti-slavery homes, "passengers" = runaway, "conductors"= white or black abolitionists
Compromise of 1850
forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
"fire eaters"
extreme southern agitators who pushed for southern interests and favored secession from the Union
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty
signed by Britain and US, provided the two nations would jointly protect the neutrality of Central America and that neither power would seek to fortify or exclusively control any future isthmian ( waterway between two bodies of land) waterway
Seventh of March Speech
Northerner Daniel Webster said that the new land could not hold slaves anyway, since it couldn't cultivate cotton, his Seventh of March speech helped move the North into compromise
Ostend Manifesto
stated that US was to offer $120 million to Spain for Cuba, and if it refused and Spain's ownership of Cuba continued to endanger the US, then America would be justified in seizing the island (sell it or it'll be taken)
"higher law"
moral or religious principle that takes precedence (higher in rank) over the Constitution
Kansas-Nebraska Act
passed in 1854, made to decide if the Kansas-Nebraska territory would be slave or free by popular sovereignty, the dispute strengthened the rift between the North and South states
Harriet Beecher Stowe
published *Uncle Tom's Cabin, the book was an attempt to show the North the horrors of slavery; the South said the book was wrong and an unfair representation of slavery; the books helped Britain stay out of the Civil War; the book was said to have started the Civil War
Hinton R. Helper
wrote *The Impending Crisis of the South in 1857, the book used statistics to argue that the non-slaveholding whites were the ones that were suffering from slavery; it was banned in the South but was used as a republican campaign in the North
John Brown
abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, Harpers Ferry = Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists they seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; he was hung there
James Buchanan
won the US presidential election of 1856; democratic president; made big mistakes: supporting the Lecompton Constitution, and held secedes in the Union by force; was viewed as pro-southern
Charles Sumner
senator from Massachusetts who was attacked on the floor of the Senate (1856) for his "The Crime Against Kansas" which was an antislavery speech; was beaten by Preston Brooks with a cane until it broke; required three years to recover but returned to the Senate to lead the Radical Republicans and to fight for racial equality; authored Civil Rights Act of 1875
John C Fremont
was chosen by republicans in the 1856 election; was hurt from the rumor that he was Catholic; lost to Buchanan
Roger Taney
Supreme Court Chief Justice of the Dred Scott case; said no slave could be a citizen of the US
John C. Breckenridge
nominated by Southern Democrats in S. Carolina in the 1860 presidential election; supported extension of slavery into the territories, and the annexation of Cuba
Abraham Lincoln
Illinois's senatorial election of 1858, the Republicans chose him to run against Democrat Stephen Douglas; called honest Abe because he would refused cases that he had to suspend his conscience to defend in the Illinois courts; quote to Beecher " so you're the little woman who wrote the book that made this great war;" was an abolitionist; won the 1860 election but not by popular vote, he was the minority president
Jefferson Davis
American statesman and politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861-1865; had ill health; believed south wanted to be left alone
Uncle Tom's Cabin
1852, by Harriet Beecher Stowe; major political force; helped start the Civil war and helped the North win it; exposed the wickedness of slavery to the North
New England Immigrant Aid Society
anti-slavery organization that sent thousands to Kansas to forestall Southern interests; groups of Northern abolitionists wanted to see Kansas a free state
Pottawatomie Creek Massacre
John Brown in 1856 he and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress; added to the name "Bleeding Kansas"
LeCompton Constitution
constitution for the statehood of Kansas devised by pro-slaver people; people had to vote for either a "with slavery" or "without slavery" version; even if "without slavery" was chosen, slave owners would be protected; free-soilers boycotted voting, so the pro-slavery people voted, approving the constitution to include slavery
"Bleeding Kansas"
1856-1860, violent events in the Kansas Territory; over whether Kansas should be admitted into the Union as a free or slave state
American (Know-Nothing) Party
American Party also called "Know-Nothing Party" because of its secrecy; organized by "nativists," old-stock Protestants against immigrants, nominated Fillmore; anti-Catholic, anti-foreign, and included old Whigs
Dred Scott Decision
1857, Supreme Court; Dred Scott (slave living with owner on free soil for five years) sued for freedom; Chief Justice Taney decided that he stay a slave, can't be a citizen, so can't sue in court, no territory in the US can abolish or ban slavery, goes against fifth amendment
Panic of 1857
economic downturn caused by over speculation of western lands, railroads, gold in CA, War demanding grain; mostly affected northerners, they called for higher tariffs and free homesteads (a place where someone resides)
Lincoln-Douglas debates
1858; debates between Lincoln and Douglas for an Illinois Senate position; Lincoln almost won by questioning "What if the people of a territory should vote down slavery?"; Douglas recovered by proposing the "Freeport Doctrine"; Douglas won; Lincoln had a moral victory
Freeport Doctrine
Idea by Douglas that said slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Napoleon III
Emperor of France, took advantage of America's preoccupation with its own internal problems and dispatched French army to occupy Mexico City in 1863; installed Archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico City, which was a direct violation of the Monroe Doctrine; was counting on the Union not retaliating due to its weakness; when the Civil War ended in 1865, Napoleon was forced to abandon Maximilian and Mexico City
Charles Frances Adams
American minister that persuaded the British that allowing such ships to be built for the confederacy was a dangerous precedent that might be used against them
Clara Barton
founded American Red Cross in 1881; she was a nurse; "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field.; superintendent of nurses for the Union army and she and Dorothea Dix helped transform nursing from a lowly service into a respected profession
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America; had disputes with his own congress; overworked himself with the details of both civil government and military operations (task beyond his powers); at times there was serious talk of impeachment
Abraham Lincoln
March 4, 1861 inaugurated president; send supplies to Fort Sumter; April 19 and 27 he called a naval blockade; said that the war was to save the Union, not free the slaves, since a war for the slaves' freedom would have lost the Border States; increased the size of the army; sent $2 million to 3 private citizens for military purposes; suspended habeas corpus so arrests could be made easily
Elizabeth Blackwell
first female doctor; helped organize the US Sanitary Commission to assist the Union armies in the field, trained nurses, collected medical supplies and equipped hospitals which was followed by the women's movement
Blockade
Union forces that prevented the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederacy by blocking Atlantic and Gulf Coast
Draft
conscription law which was a require enrollment of those into the army
Habeas corpus
it was a writ or court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person; Lincoln suspended it so anti-Unionists might be promptly arrested, said it could be set aside with only authorization from Congress
Butternut region
area of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where an antislavery war would have been very unpopular
Trent affair
1861, Union warship stopped a British ship on the Northern seas of Cuba and removed two Confederate diplomats, Britain threatened war, Lincoln released the prisoners and stated "One war at a time."
Alabama
British ships left their ports unarmed, picked up arms elsewhere, and captured Union ships; manned by Britons, never entered Confederate port; this "British pirate" captured over sixty vessels; The Alabama escaped in 1862 to the Portuguese Azores and took weapons and crew from two British ships that followed
Laird rams
Confederate warships being constructed in the shipyard of John Laird and Sons in GB; designed to destroy the wooden ships of the Union navy with their iron rams and large-caliber guns, they were far more dangerous than the swift but lightly armed Alabama
King Cotton
the South's main cash crop which dominated politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War; failed because he had been so lavishly productive in the immediate prewar years of 1857-1860; enormous exports of cotton in those years had piled up surpluses in British warehouses and British manufacturers had a hefty oversupply of fiber; the real pinch did not come until about a year and a half later, when work was lost
Draft Riots
NYC, frightful riot broke out in 1863, started largely by underprivileged and anti-black Irish-Americans, who shouted "Down with Lincoln"
Fort Sumter
place of first Civil War battle on April 12, 1861
The border states
slave states that did not secede from the Union which included Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware, and later West Virginia
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole sided with the South, even though parts of the Cherokee and most of the Plains Indians were pro-North
Merrimack
a river in New Hampshire NE Massachusetts
Morrill Tariff Act
increasing tariff rates by about 5 to 10%, war increased the rates even higher
National Banking Act
1863, to help finance the Union war effort, gave the country a uniform currency; federal currency soon drove state bank notes out of circulation
Clement L. Vallandigham
Copperhead who was an ex-congressman from Ohio; demanded an end to the war and was banished to the Confederacy
Andrew Johnson
Southerner form Tennessee, as VP when Lincoln was killed, he became president; opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto; first US president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote; very weak president; war democrat from Tennessee who was a former slave-owner; was put on the Union Party ticket in the Election of 1864; attracted other war democrats and the voters in the Border states
John Wilkes Booth
US white supremacist confederate actor and assassin of President Lincoln (1838-1865)
Robert E. Lee
top graduate of West Point; distinguished himself as an exceptional soldier in the US army for 32 years; best known for fighting on behalf of the Confederate Army in the American Civil War; led the South to victory in the battle of Bull Run, Seven's Day Battle, Antietam, and Peninsular Campaign because of all of the victories he was very cocky and demanding
Ulysses S. Grant
became a colonel in the Union volunteer army; first victory was when he captured Fort Henry and Fort Donnellson in February 1862; moved to capture the junction of the main Confederate north-south and east-west railroads in the Mississippi Valley at Corinth; plan was foiled when he was defeated by a Confederate force at the Battle of Shiloh on April 6-7, 1862.
George B. McClellan
Union general appointed by Abraham Lincoln; master of organization and an excellent drillmaster; very caution and will not attack unless he feels 100% sure of a victory; was dismissed from office after the failure of attack on the Confederates in the Seven Days' Battle; in the election of 1864 it was Lincoln vs. McClellan if elected then he wanted to end the war but Lincoln won
William T. Sherman
Union general who captured Atlanta and burned the city all the way down to Savannah; known as the Sherman's march which was to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate army and to weaken the morale of the South's army
George B. Meade
replacement for General Hooker for 3 days before the battle in Pennsylvania began, led the Army of Potomac to victory against the Confederates
George Pickett
US army officer who became a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War; best remembered for his failed and bloody charge at the Battle of Gettysburg that bears his name, Pickett's Charge.
"total war"
North's goal, in order to execute this they would have to divide the South in half by attaining the Mississippi; divide the Confederacy by ending troops to South Carolina and Georgia; capture their capital, Richmond ;and liberate their slaves which would in return under mind the South economy; all-out war that affects civilians at home as well as soldiers in combat
Unconditional surrender
nickname given to General Grant
Doctrine of ultimate destination
claims that Americans made about British ships they seized on the high seas, claiming that the British were heading to the south
Virginia
former Union ship that was taken over by Confederates, covered it with iron plates and renamed it ironclad ship; cannonballs bounced harmlessly off its metal skin; sometimes called Merrimack
Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1862, Lincoln finally finds his opportunity to end slavery (only in confederacy), it was to economically weaken the south but couldn't legally end slavery in border states
13th Amendment
ratified in 1865, abolishes slavery
Union Party
coalition party of pro-war Democrats and Republicans formed during the 1864 election to defeat anti-war Northern Democrats
First Battle of Bull Run
July 21,1861. 1st Battle of the Civil War at Manassas Junction. North advanced, the South rallied behind Stonewall Jackson, South won, Learned both armies needed training, war would be long and bloody
Battle of Antietam
September 1862, battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the prowess of the Union army, forestalling foreign investments and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Gettysburg
1863, 3 day battle and bloodiest of the entire Civil War, ended in a Union victory, and is considered the turning point of the war and had 50,00 casualties
Gettysburg Address
speech given by Lincoln which captured the spirit of liberty and morality ideally held by citizens of a democracy
Battle of Vicksburg
after Union victory at Gettysburg, afterwards Confederate hope for foreign intervention was lost
Peninsula Campaign
military conquest taken on by McClellan at the base of a narrow peninsula formed by the convergence of the James and York rivers; Union advanced onto Confederate capital
Ford's Theater
place where Lincoln was assassinated in 1865 by John Wilkes Booth
Oliver O. Howard
Union General who headed Freedman's Bureau, set up on March 3, 1865, the bureau helped freed blacks who were unskilled and uneducated
Andrew Johnson
president after Lincoln's assassination; he repeatedly vetoed Republican-passed bills, such as the Freedman's Bureau also vetoed the Civil Rights Bill; radical republicans wanted to impeach him, but he was found not guilty
Alexander Stephens
former Confederate VP whose election to Congress in 1865 made northerners very mad
Thaddeus Stevens
radical Republican who wanted slower Reconstruction, where they could bring about social and economic changes in the South; leader of the radical Republicans in the House of Representatives
William Seward
Secretary of State under Johnson and Lincoln; helped purchase Alaska from Russia to the US for $7.2mil but most of the public mocked his act "Seward's Folly" or "Seward's Ice-box
Freedmen's Bureau
federal agency that greatly assisted blacks educationally but failed in other aid efforts
10% plan
Lincoln's plan that said southern states could be put back into the Union if and when they had only 10% of its voters pledge and taken an oath to the Union this also acknowledge the emancipation of the slaves
Wade-Davis Bill
congressional bill of 1864, requiring 50% and not 10% of Lincoln's plan; vetoed by Lincoln
Moderate/radical Republicans
moderate Republicans = generally favored states' rights and opposed direct federal involvement in the individuals' lives; radical Republicans = favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war feared 10% plan was too lenient so pushed for Wade-Davis Bill
Black Codes (after Civil War)
laws passed in the South just after the Civil War they were aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit African American workers; could be arguable as "legal slavery"
Sharecropping
a system in which the freed slaves would trade their labor and labor of their families to live on the plantation and use the plantation owners tools, the plantation owners made many unreasonable requests with this a cycle was created in which the sharecroppers were constantly indebted to the plantation owners
Civil Rights Act
vetoed by president Johnson, but passed over his veto, it conferred citizenship on Blacks, leading to the 14th Amendment
14th Amendment
using the same ideas as the Civil Rights Bill(Act) it said all Blacks were to be citizens, if a state denied citizenship to Blacks, then its representatives in the Electoral College decreased, former Confederates could not be federal or state office
"swing around the circle"
nickname for Andrew Johnson's series of disastrous political speeches in the congressional campaign of 1866 to get support for his Reconstruction plan
Military Reconstruction Act
March 2, 1867, the South was divided into 5 military zones it temporarily disfranchised (took away citizenship) of tens of thousands of former Confederates, all states must approve 14th amendment and allow full suffrage (voting rights) to all former male slaves
15th Amendment
passed by Congress in 1869, gave blacks the right to vote
Ex parte Milligan
Supreme Court ruled that military courts could not hold civilians, even during wartime, if civil courts were available
Scalawags
derogatory term for Southerners who collaborated with the military governments during Reconstruction
Carpetbaggers
derogatory term for Northerners who went into the South during Reconstruction to make fortune or to take advantage of military rule there
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
"Invisible Empire of the South," they whites who were extremely racist towards blacks; founded in Tennessee 1866; it scared Blacks into not voting or not seeking jobs and often resorted to violence against the Blacks for further terror
Force Acts
laws designed to stamp out Ku Klux Klan terrorism in the South
Tenure of Office Act
made it illegal for the president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
"Seward's Folly"
public's reaction to William Seward's falter in purchasing Alaska
Oligarchy
governed by few; before the Civil War the South almost represented this form of government in the way that planter aristocracy heavily influenced the government
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