38 terms

Ap Psychology Chapter 9 Memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Ex: When taking a test you remember what you studied and are able to apply it to the answers.
Flashbulb Memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
EX: When a child sees her parents get murdered they can recall the exact setting years later.
the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning
Ex: When you study for a test, the studying of the information is encoding information since you are putting it into your brain.
the retention of encoded information over time
Ex: When you study information at night it is stored until the next day when you have a test and restored after the test for usage later on.
the process of getting information out of memory storage
Ex: When you take a test your brain retrieves information that you can use on the test.
Sensory memory
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
EX: Our mind automatically stores information without effort and the memory that stores this is known as sensory memory.
Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
EX: Long Term Memory stores an unlimited amount of information and can hold it for forever. A skilln that goes into this memory is riding a bike once you know how you always will.
Short Term Memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
EX: Such things as small talk go into short term memory since you wont remember everything you said.
Working Memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
EX:This is the memory where we actively associate new and old information and solve problems.
Automatic Processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
EX:While reading your textbook, you often encode the place where certain material appears; later, when sturggling to recall the information, you may visualize its location. `
Effortless Processing
requires attention, can become automatic
EX: We don't have to think to memorize anything.
the concious repetition of information, either to maintain it in conciousness or to encode it for storage
EX:When remembering information such as names or vocabulary we can boost memory through rhearsel.
Spacing Effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
EX:Taped Information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. Without oportunity for rehearsel "Sleep Learning" does not occur. We also reatain information better when our rehearsel is distributed over time.
Serial Postition effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
EX: 1,14,7,16,65,89,92,33,44
We are more likely to remember 1 and 44 better than the other numbers.
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images
EX: Remembering words written in Capitals
Acoustic Encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
EX:Remembering something that rhymes with something.
Semantic Encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
EX: Rememberigns oemthing by its meaning.
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
EX:The mental picture you make when you see or hear the word chimpanzee. Whatg does the chimpanzee in your head look like?
memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
EX:Frontal, temproal, occipital, peripheral LOBES
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
EX:When we organize information into meaningful units, such as letters words and phrases, we recall it more easily.
Iconic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
EX:When we see a scene we see it in such detail and we can only remember it for about one tenth of a second and then the visual screen clears and displays a new scene.
Echoic Memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
EX:In a conversation as your attention steers away and your partner asks "What did I just say?" you will remember the lasts few words they said.
Long Term Potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
EX: Drugs that block LTP interfere with learning.
loss of memory
EX:After suffering a concussion in the accident that killed princess Diana, her bodyguard had no memory of the accident or the moments before.
Implicit memories
retention independent of conscious recollection
EX:When you learn how to do something. (procedural memory)
Explicit Memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
EX:You may know and declare what you know(declarative memory)
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
EX: Remembering going to disneyland with your family and some events that took place.
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
EX:Even if Oprah Winfrey and Bradd Pitt had not become famous, their classmates would still recognize their yearbook photos.
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
EX:When studying for a final exam, it is easier than studying for a regular exam because you already have learned the information.
the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
EX:How do you pronounce the word spelled by the letters s-h-o-p?
What do you do when you come to a green light?
that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
EX:May be related to the belief of reincarnation because people may ask "How can i recognize an event that is taking place for the first time?"
Mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
EX: A depressed mood triggers the memory of negative events therefore allowing us to explain our mood using those
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
EX:Those who learn different lists of words have trouble remembering the newer ones more and more.
Retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
EX:Learning new students names it makes it harder for a teacher to recall previous students names.
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
EX:Sigmund Freud said that our memory systems do indeed slef-censor painful information.
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
EX:After exposure to misinformation people misremember, a yield sign as a stop sign, a coke can as a penut can, breakfast cereal as eggs, and a shaved man as a man with a mustache.
Source Amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
EX:Preschoolers interacted with "Mr. Science" who had them do activities such as blowing up a baloon with baking soad and vinegar. And three months later their parents read them stories about their encounters with "Mr. Science" and when asked by an interviewer 4 out of 10 recalled only doing things in the story, even though the story held false info.