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the size of the hole in the lens, which controls how much light gets in the camera.


when the sun is in front of you, lighting your subject from behind.


an image combining two or more phots.


arrangement of everything in the photo.

contact sheet

an 8x10 print that has thumbnail-size versions of all images on it.


cutting off the edges, either by moving in closer to your subject when you are taking the picture or by trimming off the edges of your finished photograph.

depth of field

the range of things in the scene, from front to back, that remain sharp.


something that softens the light source.


the amount of light that is allowed to hit the film.


1) one picture on a roll of film. 2) a compositional trick where you look "through" something, such as tree branches or a window.


a picture in which you can see tiny microscopic particles in the film.


a term often used to describe underexposed images and pictures in which it is difficult to make out the subject.


a very thin picture.


the way lines converge as they stretch farther away.

point of view

the place and position from which you shoot.

rule of thirds

trick used to compose balanced photographs that places the subject of the photograph off to the side using a graph pattern rather than directly in the center.

shutter speed

how long the shutter is left open, or how long the camera takes to make the picture.

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