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60 terms

Chpt 9

The American Revolution created a substantial though not radical push in the directron
ofsocial and political equality
The movement toward the separation ofchurch and state was greatly accelerated by the
disestablishment ofthe Anglican church in Virginra.
After the Revolution, slavery was aborished in New york and pennsyrvania, but
continued to exist in New England and the South
Drawing up a written fundamental law in a special constitutional convention and then
submitting the document directly to the people for ratification was an important new
idea ofthe Revolutionarv oeriod.
The state governments after the Revolution stayed mostly under the tight political
control ofthe eastern seaboard elite.
The United States experienced hard economic times and some social discontent during
the years ofthe Confederation (1781 1781).
The greatest failure ofthe national government under the Articles ofConfederation was
its inability to deal with the issue ofwestem lands.
The Articles ofConfederation were weak because thev contained neither an executive
nor po\ er lo lax and regulale commerce
The Northwest Ordinance originally attempted to make the western tenitories
permanent colonial possessions ofthe United States
Shays's Rebellion significantly strengthened the movement for a stronger central
government by raising the fear ofanarchy among conservatives.
The states sent their delegates to Philadelphia in 1787 for the purpose ofwriting a new
Constitution with a strong central government.
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention were all extremely wealthy
The "Great Compromise" between large and small states at the convention resulted in a
bicameral legislature with different principles of representation in each.
The antifederalists opposed the Constitution partly because they thought it gave too
much power to the states and not enough to Congress.
The federalists used tough political maneuvering and the promise ofa bill of rights to
win a narrow ratification ofthe Constitution in key states.
Among the important changes brought about by the American Revolution was
the increasing separation ofchurch and state.
A major new political innovation that emerged in the Revolutionary era was
the idea ofa written constitution drafted by a convention and ratified by direct vote ofthe
Despite the Revolution's emphasis on human rights and equality, the Founding Fathers failed to
abolish slavery because
oftheir fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity
The ideal of"republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that
women had a special responsibility to cultivate the.,civic virtues,' of republicanism in their children.
In the new state constitutions written after the Revolution, the most powerful branch of
government was
the legislative branch
One way that American independence actually harmed the nation's economic fortunes was by
cutting off American trade with the British empire
Attempts to establish strong govemments in post-Revolutionary America were seriouslv hindered
the revolutionary ideology that preached natural rights and suspicion ofall governmental authority.
The primary political obstacle to rhe lormarion ofthe first American p.ov;rnmenl under the
Articles of Confederation was
disputes among thejealous states over control of western lands
The greatest weakness ofthe govemment under the Articles ofconfederation was that
it had no power to regulate commerce or collect taxes from the sovereign states.
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 nrovided that
after sufficient population growth, western territories could be organized and then join the union as states.
Shays's Rebellion contributed to the movement for a new constitution by
raising the fear ofanarchy and disorder among wealthy conservatives
Besides George Washington, the most influential figures in the Constitutional Convention were
Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.
The "Great Compromise" finally agreed to by the Constitutional Convention provided that
there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives but equal representation of all states in the Senate.
Antifederalists generally found their greatest support among
the ooorer debtors and farmers
The crucial federalist successes in the fight for rarification occurred in the states of
Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York.
New name for the Anglican Church after it was disestablished and de-
Anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic
virtue" in their children
republican motherhood
A type ofspecial assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts, for drawing
up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law
constitutional convention
The first constitutional govemment ofthe United States
articles of confederation
The territory north ofthe Ohio and east ofthe Mississippi governed by the acts
of I 785 and I 787
In the new territories, six-mile by six-mile square areas consisting ofthirty-six
sections, one of which was set aside for public schools
'fhe status ofa weslern area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established
an organized government but before it became a state
A failed revolt in I 786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of"mobocracy"
Shay's Rebellion
The plan proposed by Virginia at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral
legislature with representation based on population
Virginia Plan
The plan proposed by New Jersey for a unicameral legislature with equal
representation of states regardless of size and population
New Jersey Plan
The compromise between North and South that resulted in each slave being
counted as 60 percent of a free person for purposes of representation
3/5 compromise
The opponents ofthe Constitution who argued against creating such a strong
central government
A masterly series of pro-Constitution articles printed in New york by Jay, -
Madison, and Hamilton
federalist papers
The official under the new Constitution who would be commander-in-chief of
the armed forces, appointjudges and other officials, and have the power to veto
A list ofguarantees that federalists promised to add to the Constitution in order
to win ratification
bill of rights
Society of the Cincinnati
An exclusive order ofmilitary officers
that aroused strong democratic
Virginia Statute for Religious
Legislation passed by an alliance of
Jefferson and the Baptists that
disestablished the Anglican church
Articles of Confederation
Document of I 781 that was put out of
business by the Constitution
Northwest Ordinance of I 787
Legislation that provided for the
orderly transformation of western
territories into states
Benjamin Franklin
Elder statesman who lent his prestige
to the Consitutional Convention and
promoted the "Great Compromise"
Daniel Shays
Revolutionary War veteran who led
poor farmers in a revolt that failed but
had far-reaching consequences
George Washington
Unanimously elected chairman of the
secret convention of "demi-gods"
James Madison
Father ofthe Constitution and author of
Federalist No. 10
Wealthy conservatives devoted to
republicanism who engineered a
nonviolent political transformation
Group that failed to block the central
govemment they feared but did force
the promise ofa bill ofrights
Patrick Henry
Virginia antifederal ist leader who
thought the Constitution spelled the
end of liberty and equality
Alexander Hamilton
Young New Yorker who argued eloquently for the Constitution even though he favored an even stronger central govemment
John Jay
Frustrated foreign affairs secrelary
under the Articles; one ofthe three
aulhors of The Federalist
First ofkey states where federalists
won by a narrow margin over the
New York
The only state lo allow a direcl vote on
the Constitution