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The American Revolution created a substantial though not radical push in the directron
ofsocial and political equality


The movement toward the separation ofchurch and state was greatly accelerated by the
disestablishment ofthe Anglican church in Virginra.


After the Revolution, slavery was aborished in New york and pennsyrvania, but
continued to exist in New England and the South


Drawing up a written fundamental law in a special constitutional convention and then
submitting the document directly to the people for ratification was an important new
idea ofthe Revolutionarv oeriod.


The state governments after the Revolution stayed mostly under the tight political
control ofthe eastern seaboard elite.


The United States experienced hard economic times and some social discontent during
the years ofthe Confederation (1781 1781).


The greatest failure ofthe national government under the Articles ofConfederation was
its inability to deal with the issue ofwestem lands.


The Articles ofConfederation were weak because thev contained neither an executive
nor po\ er lo lax and regulale commerce


The Northwest Ordinance originally attempted to make the western tenitories
permanent colonial possessions ofthe United States


Shays's Rebellion significantly strengthened the movement for a stronger central
government by raising the fear ofanarchy among conservatives.


The states sent their delegates to Philadelphia in 1787 for the purpose ofwriting a new
Constitution with a strong central government.


The delegates to the Constitutional Convention were all extremely wealthy


The "Great Compromise" between large and small states at the convention resulted in a
bicameral legislature with different principles of representation in each.


The antifederalists opposed the Constitution partly because they thought it gave too
much power to the states and not enough to Congress.


The federalists used tough political maneuvering and the promise ofa bill of rights to
win a narrow ratification ofthe Constitution in key states.


Among the important changes brought about by the American Revolution was

the increasing separation ofchurch and state.

A major new political innovation that emerged in the Revolutionary era was

the idea ofa written constitution drafted by a convention and ratified by direct vote ofthe

Despite the Revolution's emphasis on human rights and equality, the Founding Fathers failed to
abolish slavery because

oftheir fear that a fight over slavery would destroy fragile national unity

The ideal of"republican motherhood" that emerged from the American Revolution held that

women had a special responsibility to cultivate the.,civic virtues,' of republicanism in their children.

In the new state constitutions written after the Revolution, the most powerful branch of
government was

the legislative branch

One way that American independence actually harmed the nation's economic fortunes was by

cutting off American trade with the British empire

Attempts to establish strong govemments in post-Revolutionary America were seriouslv hindered

the revolutionary ideology that preached natural rights and suspicion ofall governmental authority.

The primary political obstacle to rhe lormarion ofthe first American p.ov;rnmenl under the
Articles of Confederation was

disputes among thejealous states over control of western lands

The greatest weakness ofthe govemment under the Articles ofconfederation was that

it had no power to regulate commerce or collect taxes from the sovereign states.

The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 nrovided that

after sufficient population growth, western territories could be organized and then join the union as states.

Shays's Rebellion contributed to the movement for a new constitution by

raising the fear ofanarchy and disorder among wealthy conservatives

Besides George Washington, the most influential figures in the Constitutional Convention were

Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton.

The "Great Compromise" finally agreed to by the Constitutional Convention provided that

there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives but equal representation of all states in the Senate.

Antifederalists generally found their greatest support among

the ooorer debtors and farmers

The crucial federalist successes in the fight for rarification occurred in the states of

Massachusetts, Virginia, and New York.

New name for the Anglican Church after it was disestablished and de-
Anglicized in Virginia and elsewhere


The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic
virtue" in their children

republican motherhood

A type ofspecial assembly, originally developed in Massachusetts, for drawing
up a fundamental law that would be superior to ordinary law

constitutional convention

The first constitutional govemment ofthe United States

articles of confederation

The territory north ofthe Ohio and east ofthe Mississippi governed by the acts
of I 785 and I 787


In the new territories, six-mile by six-mile square areas consisting ofthirty-six
sections, one of which was set aside for public schools


'fhe status ofa weslern area under the Northwest Ordinance after it established
an organized government but before it became a state


A failed revolt in I 786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of"mobocracy"

Shay's Rebellion

The plan proposed by Virginia at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral
legislature with representation based on population

Virginia Plan

The plan proposed by New Jersey for a unicameral legislature with equal
representation of states regardless of size and population

New Jersey Plan

The compromise between North and South that resulted in each slave being
counted as 60 percent of a free person for purposes of representation

3/5 compromise

The opponents ofthe Constitution who argued against creating such a strong
central government


A masterly series of pro-Constitution articles printed in New york by Jay, -
Madison, and Hamilton

federalist papers

The official under the new Constitution who would be commander-in-chief of
the armed forces, appointjudges and other officials, and have the power to veto


A list ofguarantees that federalists promised to add to the Constitution in order
to win ratification

bill of rights

Society of the Cincinnati

An exclusive order ofmilitary officers
that aroused strong democratic

Virginia Statute for Religious

Legislation passed by an alliance of
Jefferson and the Baptists that
disestablished the Anglican church

Articles of Confederation

Document of I 781 that was put out of
business by the Constitution

Northwest Ordinance of I 787

Legislation that provided for the
orderly transformation of western
territories into states

Benjamin Franklin

Elder statesman who lent his prestige
to the Consitutional Convention and
promoted the "Great Compromise"

Daniel Shays

Revolutionary War veteran who led
poor farmers in a revolt that failed but
had far-reaching consequences

George Washington

Unanimously elected chairman of the
secret convention of "demi-gods"

James Madison

Father ofthe Constitution and author of
Federalist No. 10


Wealthy conservatives devoted to
republicanism who engineered a
nonviolent political transformation


Group that failed to block the central
govemment they feared but did force
the promise ofa bill ofrights

Patrick Henry

Virginia antifederal ist leader who
thought the Constitution spelled the
end of liberty and equality

Alexander Hamilton

Young New Yorker who argued eloquently for the Constitution even though he favored an even stronger central govemment

John Jay

Frustrated foreign affairs secrelary
under the Articles; one ofthe three
aulhors of The Federalist


First ofkey states where federalists
won by a narrow margin over the

New York

The only state lo allow a direcl vote on
the Constitution

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