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the power centers of the cell (movement, dividing, producing)


Contains hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion, rare in plant cells, but common in animal cells. Necessary for digestion, and to kill and digest bacteria.


contains DNA responsible for providing the cell with its information

Golgi apparatus

Membrane-bound structure with a single membrane, packes macromolecules for transport throughout the cell

Rough ER

Pebbled by electron microscopy due to presence of numerous ribosomes on its surface

Smooth ER

A continuation of the outer nuclear membrane and its varied functions suggest the complexity of the cell.


Full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors

Cell membrane

A double layer of phospholipids. Cell boundary. Heads are hydrophilic and tails are hydrophobic.


Packets of RNA and protein that play a crucial role in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The site of protein synthesis, comprised of a large and small subunit.


Specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells and contains chlorophyll responsible for the green color. Has double outer membrane.

Central Vacuole

A membrane-bound sac that plays roles in intracellular digestion and the release of cellular waste products.

Cell Wall

A rigid, protective cell wall made up of polysaccarides (cellulose). Maintains shapes of cells


Store nutrients and waste products, help increase cell size during growth, and act a lot like lysosomes.

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