Theories of Aging

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Is the wear and tear theory stochastic or non-stochastic?stochasticIs the error theory stochastic or non-stochastic?stochasticIs the cross-linking theory stochastic or non-stochastic?stochasticIs the free radical theory stochastic or non-stochastic?stochasticWhat is the wear and tear theory?physical use and environment influences "wear it out"According to the wear and tear theory, what wears out the body?physical activity, toxins, cellular by-productsAccording to the wear and tear theory, failure leads to what?disease/disabilityWhat are the problems with the wear and tear theory?body repair mechanisms and increased use of body can be beneficialWhat is another name for the error theory?somatic mutation theoryAccording to the error theory, negative effects of internal/external environment lead to what?cell deathAccording to the error theory, what can lead to cell death?negative effects of internal/external environmentWhat the problem with the error theory?repair mechanismWhat happens during the cross-linking theory?chemical reaction create bonds between molecule that are normally separateTrue of false. According to the Cross-Linking Theory, collagen and elastin become more closely associated as a person ages.trueWhen collagen and elastin become more closely associated, does flexibility increase or decrease?decreaseWhen collagen and elastin become more closely associated, does rigidity increase or decrease?increaseWhen collagen and elastin become more closely associated, is there an increase or decrease in white blood cells and nutrients?decreaseWhen collagen and elastin become more closely associated, is there an decrease in what?flexibility, white blood cells, nutrients, & ability to eliminate toxinsWhen collagen and elastin become more closely associated, is there an increase or decrease in ability to eliminate toxins?decreaseWhat the problem with the cross-linking theory?doesn't provide any sort of preventative mechanismTrue or false. According to the cross-linking theory, it can effect all different types of organ system.trueTrue or false. Free radicals are highly reactive and aggressively cause damage.trueWhat is a free radical?oxygen atom that has lost an electronWhat is a byproduct of a cell using oxygen for metabolism?free radicalHow long do free radicals last?~1 secondWhat 2 things can neutralize antioxidants?protective enzymes and anti-oxidantsProtective enzymes and anti-oxidants can neutralize what?free radicalsWhat are the problems with the free radical theory?oxygen paradox and possibly beneficialWhat is the oxygen paradox?we need oxygen but its also killing usWhat are the 2 non-stochastic theories of aging?- programmed aging theory - immunological/immunity theoryIs the programmed aging theory stochastic or non-stochastic?non-stochasticIs the immunological/immunity theory stochastic or non-stochastic?non-stochasticWhat is senescence?why cells age and stop dividingAccording to the programmed aging theory, does cell senescence predetermined lead to a biological advantage or disadvantage?advantageWhat is the Hayflick limit?cells can divide only a certain number of times before senscenceTrue or false. According to Hayflick and Moorhead, aging is random at the cellular level.falseWhat is max lifespan?max number of cell divisionsWhat does doublings mean?number of times a cell can divideHuman cells have ________ doublings.14-29Human cells have 14-29 doublings which is ~_____ years.120What sets the limit for cell division?unknownWhat stabilizes and protects the chromosome during cell division?telomeresWhat shortens with each cell division?telomeresTelomeres protect DNA from losing what?base pairsHow many base pairs do telomeres lose with each cell division?~30-250Approximately how many base pairs is a person born with in each cell?~8000Approximately how many base pairs does a person have within each cell at age 65?~1500shorter telomeres are associated with higher risk of what?cellular death and genetic mutationsDo calorie restricted mice live longer and healthier or shorter and unhealthier lives than their regular fed counterparts?longer and healthierAccording to nutrition research, do overfed cells divide faster or slower than underfed cells?fasterIn mice, ___% calorie restriction leads to slower rate of cell division.30What are the proposed outcomes of caloric restriction?- decrease energy expenditure - decreased oxidative stress - decreased fat mass & visceral fatAccording to the immunological theory, does the immune system become more or less effective as a person ages?lessAccording to the immunological theory, is there an increase or decrease in immune response?decreaseAccording to the immunological theory, is there an increase or decrease in autoimmune response?increaseWhat is immune response?ability to identify invaders and initiate responseWith autoimmune response, cells are less effective at what?distinguishing own cells from invading cellsAn increase in autoimmune response means an increase in what?inflammationIs inflamm-aging good short- or long-term?short-termStress theory is also known as what?fight or flight responseStress response is controlled by what system?endocrineAccording to the stress theory, prolonged exposure to stress does what?- high cortisol levels - suppressed immune system, damage to cardiovascular and nervous systemsA reduced resiliency to stress can lead to what?chronic stress_________ are difficult to develop because people age so differently.theoriesTheories help us understand what?why we age and what we can do to slow down the aging processEach theory on aging tries to explain what?aging process from a unique perspectiveTrue or false. There is a theory on aging that explains all aspects of biological aging.false