Research Methods Vocabulary with Mnemonic Devices and Examples

Scientific Method
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Terms in this set (66)
Random AssignmentIt means that everyone involved in the sample has an equal chance of being chosen to be part of the experimental groupEx Post FactoIt is a kind of research where subjects for the experiment are picked because of already having a certain condition An example would be using people with already broken feet for an experiment, you wouldn't purposefully break them for the studyCorrelational StudyIt is a mostly statistical kind of research and it looks at and decides the relationship tied between two variables A correlational study looks at the correlation between two variablesCorrelation CoefficientIt summarizes the two variables and their relationship in a statistical way, it can range from -1.0 to +1.0SurveyIt is a research method that asks subjects questions carefully, the researcher has to be cautious when creating the questions however to be sure they are not biased or lean toward a specific response or answerNaturalistic ObservationIt is a way of research that follows and observes a subject in its natural environment An example would be seeing how often people shop without letting them know they are being observedLongitudinal StudyIt observes and follows one specific group of subjects over a long period of time, usually years A longitudinal study takes place over a long period of timeCross-Sectional StudyIt observes multiple different groups of subjects at one specific timePersonal BiasIt means that the person who is experimenting or researching lets their personal opinions, beliefs, and preferences change in some way or affect a study's results The person who is experimenting lets their personal preferences affect a study's outcomeExpectancy BiasIt is when the conductor of the experiment lets their expectations of the study actually change it's outcome A researcher's expectations affect a study's results because of expectancy biasDouble-Blind StudyIt is a study where neither the experimenters or the participants know who is part of the control group or the experimental group, it helps to control any biasInstitutional Review BoardIt is a committee at each place that conducts research and experiments and they look at every study's methods and ethicsFrequency DistributionIt is a chart that summarizes how often each of the different amounts (scores) occur in one set of dataHistogramIt is a bar graph that helps to understand a frequency distribution, the taller the bar on the graph, the more often a certain group of scores is seenDescriptive StatisticsThey are the numbers that help to describe the data's main characteristics as well as groups of subjects or individual subjects responses Descriptive statistics describe the main characteristics of dataMeanIt is usually used to describe a set of data to find what the central tendency is, this is found by adding all of the scores and then dividing that number by the number of scores, it finds the average amount of a set of data The mean is used to find the measure of central tendency mostly used in graphsMedianIt is another measure of central tendency, but it is used for a distribution, it is seen by showing the score that splits the upper and lower half of the scores from one another The median finds the middleModeIt is the last form of central tendency, it is shown by finding whatever score occurs the most The mode shows what occurs more often (the most) next to everything elseRangeIt is the most simple measure of variability, it is shown by finding the difference between the highest value within a frequency distributionStandard DeviationIt is the most used measure of variability, it shows the average difference between the scores and the meanNormal DistributionIt is a symmetrical and bell-shaped curve that helps to describe the way a characteristic in a population is spreadCorrelationIt is the relationship between two variables, it shows that when one variable changes, the other also does An example of correlation would be age and shoe size, when a person gets older they increase in shoe sizeCorrelation CoefficientIt is shown by a number between -1.0 and +1.0 and it expresses two variables relationship with a degreeInferential StatisticsThey are usually used to see if two or more groups are either the same or different, they are used to decide if results can be considered reliable or if they may have occurred by chance Inferential statistics are used to infer if results are by chance or reliableRandom SampleIt is a group of subjects that are chosen by chance and are chosen in an unbiased way An example of a random sample would be using a random number generator to pick who will be involved in a studyRepresentative SampleIt is a group of subjects that are chosen in a way that shows a good distribution of variables and reflects the larger population A representative sample represents a larger populationSignificant DifferenceIt is when the psychologists accept a difference between groups as real when the probability that the difference may be because of an atypical sample that was drawn due to chance is less than 5 in 100 or p<0.5Wilhelm WundtHe was a German Scientist, who was the first person to call himself a psychologist. After the discovery of the periodic table and looking at the way it was organized he thought the mind could be explained and divided in a similar manner, he was known as the father of psychology Wilhelm Wundt thought the mind could be arranged and organized in a similar manner as the periodic table of elementsG. Stanley HallHe was a student of Wilhelm Wundt's and he had the first American Psychology lab at Johns Hopkins, he was the first American psychologistWilliam JamesHe thought that the idea of structuralism was not broad enough, he thought it should not only include the structures of the mind, but the functions as well, he wrote the first Psychology textbook, it was called Principles of Psychology William James thought that there should be more studied than just the structures of the mind and that their functions should be included as wellMary Whiton CalkinsShe was the first female president to be elected to the American Psychological Association, she was elected in 1905 and earlier in her life she was denied a doctorate from Harvard even though she has met all of the requirements needed to be given one, she was one of William James' students Mary Whiton Calkins used her wit to be elected the first female president of the American Psychological AssociationMargaret Floy WashburnShe was the first woman who officially earned a Psychology Ph. D, she wrote The Animal Mind and was denied from many groups in psychologyNature/Nurture DebateThe idea that nurture works on what nature endows, it says people are born one way but environment can change the way people are Nature Examples: Brain structure, genes, body systems, brain chemistry, hormones Nurture Examples: Experience, environmentPsychologistThey are scientists who study the behavior and mental processes or living organismsPsychiatristThey are doctors who work in a medicine brand that works with disorders of the mind and they are usually the only people who can prescribe these patients with medications, they also graduate from medical schoolCounseling PsychologistThey help people with problems they have in life to help them have a better life whether that be helping them through marriage, addictions, divorce, losing weight, etc. They are able to treat people, but they cannot diagnose themHindsight BiasIt is the tendency people have to say they "knew something all along" after hearing an outcome of something, even though there was no way they could have known, it is thinking after something happensOverconfidence EffectIt is the fact that people often exaggerate on the accuracy of their predictions about something, it is thinking strongly about something without being correct and having too much confidence in itCase StudyIt studies one person or a small group, it is done specifically so it is not random, it is only done on one person so it may not represent the population the same way a sample would, but it can allow further research and more studies on rare things An example of a case study would be Phineas Gage, who ended up with a rod through his head, which affected his frontal lobe and caused him to act as though he had alzheimers, he was the only person this happened toValidityIt is to the amount of an experiment is able to predict or measure what it was meant toInformed ConsentThis is the ideas of sharing enough information about a research study to people that could be potential participants, so that they have enough information to make a choice if they want to be in the experiment or notPsychologyIt scientifically studies the way the mind goes through processes and the human body goes through behavioral processes Psyche - mind Ology - the study of Psychology - the study of the mindEmpiricismIt is the idea that by experimenting and observing, scientists are able to gain more knowledgePseudopsychologyIt is information that people believe to be psychologically true but is not proven scientifically nor is it true An example of pseudopsychology would be palm readings because they are not trueConfirmation BiasIt is the fact that people tend to use evidence that back up their personal opinions or beliefs and seem to forget the facts that contradict them An example would be when someone goes to see a fortune teller, they seem to remember the information that came true and forget the other information that did not come trueStructuralismIt focuses on the basics of the mind and the parts that make up the mind Structuralism focuses on the structures that make up the mindFunctionalismIt is the idea that the mind can be understood by looking at all of the different proponents and each one's specific purpose and function Functionalism focuses on the functions of the parts of the mindGestalt PsychologyIt was the idea of how the mind was constructed as a whole and how it worked as a whole, instead of looking at something as multiple parts, it looked at is as a whole Gestalt Psychology focuses on all of the mind as a whole instead of different partsPsychoanalysisIt is the idea that is based on the processes that occur in the unconscious mind and how they impact the conscious mind and human body, it follows everything Freud says Psyche - mind Psychoanalysis - the study of the processes in the unconscious mind and how it impacts the rest of the mind and bodyBiological PsychologyIt includes the idea that the way one's brain functions and their physical makeup plays a huge part in their behavior and who they become, it looks at the mind, genes, and many body systems in order to try to explain why someone behaves the way they do The biological view focuses on how someone's brain functions and physical makeup impact how they behaveDevelopmental PsychologyIt includes the idea that change in psychology occurs because of genes and the events made because of one's environment, it also focuses on the changes that occur in a person's perspective throughout their life The developmental view focuses on how one develops and how it impacts their life and mindCognitive PsychologyIt includes the idea that actions people make are greatly influenced by the way the mind takes in information from the environment around them The cognitive view shows that people's actions come from the way the mind takes in information from the environmentPsychodynamic PsychologyIt states the idea that mental disorders can be understood by looking at the unconscious mind and it's memories, needs, conflicts, and desires, it follows most of what Freud says Psyche - mind Psychodynamic Psychology looks at mental disorders and how they can be understood by looking into the unconscious mindHumanistic PsychologyIt focuses on the idea that one's actions are influenced by their personal potential, abilities, and need for growth. It makes you feel warm and fuzzy and usually includes a work with self in it Humanistic psychology focuses on how actions are influenced by personal potentialBehavioral PsychologyIt emphasizes the way people react based on punishments and rewards they are given An example would be that after I got a goal in my lacrosse game, my dad took me out for brunch and then I continued to work hard and try to get goalsSociocultural PsychologyIt touches on the idea that people are influenced greatly by social influences, whether that be learning, interactions with others, or looking at things in a cultural perspective Socio - social Sociocultural View - People are influenced by social interactions