4 Written questions
3 Matching questions
- 39) In most cells, there are electrochemical gradients of many ions across the plasma membrane even though there are usually only one or two electrogenic pumps present in the membrane. The gradients of the other ions are most likely accounted for by
A) cotransport proteins.
B) ion channels.
C) carrier proteins.
D) passive diffusion across the plasma membrane.
E) cellular metabolic reactions that create or destroy ions.
- 5) When biological membranes are frozen and then fractured, they tend to break along the middle of the bilayer. The best explanation for this is that
A) the integral membrane proteins are not strong enough to hold the bilayer together.
B) water that is present in the middle of the bilayer freezes and is easily fractured.
C) hydrophilic interactions between the opposite membrane surfaces are destroyed on freezing.
D) the carbon-carbon bonds of the phospholipid tails are easily broken.
E) the hydrophobic interactions that hold the membrane together are weakest at this point.
- 53) A bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes contained in
C) Golgi vesicles.
E) secretory vesicles.
- a a
- b b
- c e
5 Multiple choice questions
5 True/False questions
21) Cell membranes are asymmetrical. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
A) The cell membrane forms a border between one cell and another in tightly packed tissues such as epithelium.
B) Cell membranes communicate signals from one organism to another.
C) The two sides of a cell membrane face different environments and carry out different functions.
D) The "innerness" and "outerness" of membrane surfaces are predetermined by genes.
E) Proteins can only be associated with the cell membranes on the cytoplasmic side. → c
74) A patient has had a serious accident and lost a lot of blood. In an attempt to replenish body fluids, distilled water-equal to the volume of blood lost-is transferred directly into one of his veins. What will be the most probable result of this transfusion?
A) It will have no unfavorable effect as long as the water is free of viruses and bacteria.
B) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
C) The patient's red blood cells will swell because the blood fluid has become hypotonic compared to the cells.
D) The patient's red blood cells will shrivel up because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells.
E) The patient's red blood cells will burst because the blood fluid has become hypertonic compared to the cells. → b
80) Based on the figure above, which of these experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
A) decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration
B) decreasing extracellular pH
C) decreasing cytoplasmic pH
D) adding an inhibitor that blocks the regeneration of ATP
E) adding a substance that makes the membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions → c
34) When a plant cell, such as one from a peony stem, is submerged in a very hypotonic solution, what is likely to occur?
A) The cell will burst.
B) The cell membrane will lyse.
C) Plasmolysis will shrink the interior.
D) The cell will become flaccid.
E) The cell will become turgid. → a
36) The phosphate transport system in bacteria imports phosphate into the cell even when the concentration of phosphate outside the cell is much lower than the cytoplasmic phosphate concentration. Phosphate import depends on a pH gradient across the membrane-more acidic outside the cell than inside the cell. Phosphate transport is an example of
A) passive diffusion.
B) facilitated diffusion.
C) active transport.
E) cotransport. → e