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In the mid-19th Century, "total war" was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. In a total war, there is less differentiation between combatants and civilians than in other conflicts, and sometimes no such differentiation at all, as nearly every human resource, civilians and soldiers alike, can be considered to be part of the belligerent effort.
• Leaders of the genocide
• CUP Party
• Authoritarian regime
• Led by Enver, Talat, and Jemal
Conversely, nationalism might also be portrayed as collective identities toward imagined communities which are not naturally expressed in language, race or religion but rather socially constructed by the very individuals that belong to a given nation
system of law that allowed seperate religious groups to govern themselves under their own system. Protected religious minority groups. First from of religious pluralism.
• Violence due to Armenian treason - blame was to be put on the Armenians
• Killings were war casualties - brutality justified
Acts of Armenian genocide were provoked
the term "Pan-Turkism" is used to describe the idea of political, cultural and ethnic unity of all Turkic-speaking people
• From political pluralism to cultural nationalism
• The nation was to be a specific ethnicity and religion
o Turks & Muslims
an Ottoman imperial government special forces unit under the War Department
• The killer bands of the Special Organization, often assisted by gendarmery units and even parts of civilian populations, would be deployed at strategic points
• Sent to slaughter mercilessly
• Principal instrument of the massacres against the Armenians
• Labor battalions
o Conscription and isolation of Armenian men
o Brutal work conditions
o Torture and executions
politics based primarily on power and on practical and material factors and considerations, rather than ideological notions or moralistic or ethical premises.
Political power achieved through force and coercion
sickman of europe
"Sick man of Europe" is a nickname that has been used to describe a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or impoverishment.
responsibility to protect
• Responsibility of any state to protect it's population due to ear, insurgency, and crimes
• A state's inability or unwillingness to protect, shifts responsibility to international community despite state sovereignty claim
• Responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity
• State having supreme, independent authority to rule as it wishes
• If state commits crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide, ethnic cleansing etc. then sovereignty cannot protect them
• Coined the term: "genocide" in 1944
o Genos (greek) - race, tribe people
o Cide (latin) - killing, murder
• A systematic, coordinated, organized plan of mass destruction of a people
• Polish Jew who escaped the Holocaust
• Published books on genocide
o Enduring - racial, religious, ethnic, national
o Social status or political beliefs
o Sexual orientation, physical or mental impairment
• Elimination of a natural culture, identity forced assimilation, conversion, destruction of traditions, languages rituals, artifacts
• Murder of own citizens
• Eliminate ascribed political, social groups
• Superior rulers vs. subordinate subjects
Democide is the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide, politicide, and mass murder. Democide is not necessarily the elimination of entire cultural groups but rather groups within the country that the government feels need to be eradicated for political reasons and due to claimed future threats
policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror-inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas
"the planned deliberate removal from a specific territory, persons of a particular ethnic group, by force or intimidation, in order to render that area ethnically homogenous."
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