Unit 2 Biology Review GA 2021

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Terms in this set (40)
endosymbiotic theorya theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes were engulfed by larger prokaryotes and evolved into the organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) of modern-day eukaryotes (Big Fat Tony!)Cell theory statesAll living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cellsAll cells havecell membrane, cytoplasm, genetic material, & ribosomesmitochondriaAn organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production, powerhouse of the cellChloroplastAn organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occursLysosomesAn organelle containing digestive enzymes (lysol - clean up crew)VacuoleCell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates3 things plant cells have that animal cells don'tcell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuoleGolgi apparatusAn organelle that is a system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell in vesiclesRough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)transports proteins made at attached ribosomesSmooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)no ribosomes attached; makes lipids (fats) and transports themRibosomesMakes proteinsprokaryotic cellcell that does NOT have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles.eukaryotic cellcell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organellescell membraneA cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.cell wallA rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cellcytoskeletonprovides internal structure and support for the cellThe nodes on a cladogram representa common ancestor between two organismsRules for writing scientific names1. Capitalize first name - genus 2. Lower case second name - species 3. Italicized or underlinedLevels of Classification (in order)Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, SpeciesAutotrophAn organism that makes its own foodHeterotrophorganism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes or decomposes (cannot make its own food)Plantae cell wall is made ofcelluloseArchaea cell wall is madewithout peptidoglycanEubacteria cell wall is madewith peptidoglycanFungi cell wall is made ofchitinAnimalia cell wall is made ofnothing, animal cells don't have a cell wall!Kingdoms that are prokaryotic includeEubacteria and ArchaeaKingdoms that are eukaryotic includePlantae, Animalia, Fungi, and Protistacladea grouping on a phylogenetic tree that includes a common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor (meaning they have similar characteristics!)